East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path <div id="91b6062e-1bf8-419c-93d0-79a4f3903015" class="widget general-html none widget-none widget-compact-all"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-all"> <h1>Journal information</h1> </div> </div> </div> <div id="6a7ebf57-ace8-43ae-a6bd-c9bc01bddf18" class="widget literatumSerialDetails none widget-none widget-compact-all"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-all"><span class="serial-item serialDetailsIssn"> <span class="serial-title">Print ISSN:</span> 0012-8325</span> <span class="serial-item serialDetailsEissn"> <span class="serial-title">Online ISSN:</span> 2313-450X</span></div> </div> </div> <div id="8af55cbd-03a5-4deb-9086-061d8da288d1" class="widget general-html none widget-none widget-compact-horizontal"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-horizontal"> <div>4 issues per year</div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="d2bf14dd-a459-4dde-a6b2-c22a5b665e72" class="widget general-html none widget-none widget-compact-horizontal"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-horizontal"> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis make every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in our publications. However, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to, or arising out of the use of the Content. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions">http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</a> .</div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="5feee70b-a8d8-4333-9403-eec0891b6df7" class="widget literatumSerialHistory none widget-none widget-compact-horizontal"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-horizontal"> <h2>Publication history</h2> <h3>Currently known as:</h3> <ul> <li class="show">East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal <span class="dates"> (1960 - current) </span></li> </ul> <h3>Formerly known as</h3> <ul> <li class="show">The East African Agricultural Journal <span class="dates"> (1909 - 1960)</span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> Kenya Agricultural And Livestock Research Organisation en-US East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 0012-8325 <h3>Copyright Notices</h3> <h4>1. Policy for Journals That Offer Open Access</h4> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new"><span style="color: #337755;">Creative Commons Attribution License</span></a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new"><span style="color: #337755;">The Effect of Open Access</span></a>).</li> </ol> <h4>Proposed Policy for Journals That Offer Delayed Open Access</h4> <h4><br>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</h4> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new"><span style="color: #337755;">Creative Commons Attribution License</span></a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new"><span style="color: #337755;">The Effect of Open Access</span></a>).</li> </ol> Enteric Methane Emission of Cattle Grazing Rangeland Ecosystems of South Eastern Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/641 <p>Large herds of ruminant cattle grazing degraded rangeland pastures in Kenya are associated with enteric methane (CH4) emission, contributing to global warming potential (GWP). Yet the CH4 emissions and associated GWP are hardly quantified to inform emerging threats to sustainable use of grassland ecosystems. This study estimated enteric CH4 emission and the GWP from cattle grazing in Makueni County, a rangeland ecosystem in South Eastern Kenya. Estimation applied the intercontinental panel of climate change (IPCC) Tier I and Tier II approaches with Tier II incorporating seasonal differences in feed quality, dry matter intake and animal performance. Animal activity and production data for the year 2019 was obtained from the County livestock inventory reports while feed quality data was sourced from recently published literature. The resultant emission factors (EFs) (kg/year) were 47.1 for females &gt;2 years; 27.2 for heifers 1-2 years; 46.5 for males &gt; 2years; 32.9 for young males 1-2years; and 17.2 for calves &lt;1year. These EFs were higher (7.7 to 14.9%) than those of Tier I for females &gt;2years, young males 1-2years and for calves &lt;1yr but lower (5.4 to 12.3%) for males &gt; 2years and for heifers 1-2 years. The Tier II estimates were 4.4% higher than the estimates with Tier I approach for both total estimated enteric CH4 emission (9,279,526.80 vs 8,889,997 kg CH4/year) and GWP (259,826,750.4 vs. 248,919,916 kg CO2 eq). The results reflect uncertainty of EFs generated from Tier I approach, which necessitates&nbsp;development of region-specific EFs using data from local breeds of animals and feed resources. This will improve certainties of the enteric CH4 emissions and accuracy in reporting the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).</p> Maweu A. N. Bebe B. O. Kuria S. G. Kashongwe O.B. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-09 2023-11-09 87 3&4 9 9 Analysis of Rainfall Spatiotemporal Variability and Its Impact on Livelihood in Marsabit, Kenya. https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/642 <p>Regardless of geographical location, climate variability significantly influences the success or loss of agricultural production as a source of income worldwide. As a result, this research aimed to look into the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and its impacts on pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihood choices in Marsabit County. The rainfall data was sourced from daily gridded rainfall with a resolution of 0.050 x 0.050 (Approximately 5km x 5km overland) from 1981 to 2021.The Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the significance of the trend by using Sen’s non-parametric estimator of the slope. The intra-seasonal climatic characteristics of rainfall were examined using the INSTAT statistical analysis software version 3.36. With a questionnaire as the main data collecting tool for 382 houses, a cross-sectional study method was utilized to gather household data. The study reveals that livestock and crop farming were the most negatively affected livelihood activities, according to 57.1%, 73.7%, and 78.8% of respondents in Maikona, Sololo, and Kargi, respectively. The findings indicate a decreasing trend in the March-May rainy season and mean total seasonal rainfall of 0.3613 mm (Kargi), 0.4617 mm (Maikona), 1.7261 mm (Dakabaricha), and 1.6686 mm (Sololo) every year. This implies a decrease in total rainfall and fewer opportunities for sustained rainfall-dependent livelihood activities in the county. This impacts negatively on crops and livestock, which rely on water for growth and development. The study recommends pastoralists and agro-pastoralists to adopt early maturing crop varieties, pastures, and drought-tolerant animal species to take advantage of the region’s declining rainfall amounts.</p> Galwab A. M. Koech O. K. Wasonga O. V. Kironchi G. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-09 2023-11-09 87 3&4 20 20 Identification of Sorghum Genotypes Tolerant to Aluminium Toxicity using Morphological Markers https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/647 <p>Aluminium (Al) toxicity is among the major edaphic factors limiting sorghum production in soils with pH&lt;5.0. It interferes with apical root cell multiplication and elongation, hence, inhibiting the absorption of water and nutrients which eventually leads to poor plant growth, yield and kernel quality. Liming, a most adopted remedy against Al toxicity has proved costly and unsustainable, however, identification and utilization of tolerant genotypes could feasibly aid in management of the menace. Magnavaca solution screening was used in evaluation of 14 selected sorghum genotypes for Al toxicity tolerance. The genotypes were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with two levels of Al treatments; 0 and 148 μM. Among the genotypes were two standard checks, Al-sensitive Seredo and Al-tolerant IS 41764. Seeds were pre-germinated in an incubator and measurements for initial seminal root lengths taken four days upon germination. Final seminal root lengths were taken five days after exposure of seedlings to Al and together with initial root lengths used to compute for the net seminal root length, relative seminal root length, root tolerance index and % response to Al that were applied in establishing the tolerance status of the genotypes in reference to the provided standard scales. Results from analysis of variance showed a significant (p&lt;0.001) decline in grand mean for net root lengths of seedlings at 148μM Al in reference to the control (0 μM Al) indicating persistence of Al toxicity as a major constraint to sorghum growth in acidic soils. Sorghum genotypes differed (p&lt;0.001) on the assessed parameters. Genotypes Gadam and Wagita were found to be tolerant, Macia and Kiboko local 2 were moderately tolerant while the remaining eight genotypes expressed sensitivity. These results revealed high potential for Al tolerance among the availab le sorghum germplasm providing basis for selection of tolerant parental lines for breeding against the stress</p> F.T. Kipsang J.J. Cheboi F.M. Nzuve ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 87 3&4 11 11 Potential of bacillus thuringiensis Isolate in the control of pod borers, (Helicoverpa armigera) in pigeon peas https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/648 <p>Pod borers (Helicoverpa armigera) infestation is one of the major constraints affecting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) production. The objective of this study was to evaluate locally isolated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for biopesticide efficacy in controlling pod borers in pigeon pea. Soil samples from pigeon pea farms within Machakos County (37o 30’ 28.1052 E, -1o 19’ 10.6176” S) were collected and Bt bacteria isolated using nutrient broth and 0.25 M Sodium Acetate (C2H3NaO2) method. Isolates were grown on nutrient agar plates to establish colony features and were subjected to gram staining to ascertain the Bt morphological characteristics. Molecular analysis of 10 Bt isolates was done using specific primers to differentiate Bt cry 1 and cry 2 genes. The isolates were tested at different dilutions for bioassay and bio efficacy experiment in the field to determine the virulence against pigeon pea pod borer. Out of the 10 characterized, J7 and J10 displayed clear strong bands of 600 bp and 1500 bp for (J7) Cry2 and (J10) Cry1, respectively. In the laboratory, Bt cry1 and cry2 significantly (p&lt;0.05) caused higher mortality of 2nd and 3rd instar of pod borer compared to control. Bt cry1 significantly (p&lt;0.05) caused higher mortality to 2nd and 3rd larvae compared to cry 2. Larval anthropophagy was realized in both second and third larval instars due to cannibalism effect in Helicoverpa armigera. In the field, Bacillus thuringiensis cry1, cry2 and cry1 and cry2 mixture at concentration 10³ and 10⁴ significantly (p&lt;0.05) affected pod borer larvae, reducing the number of damaged pods in the field compared to the control. Among the treatments, Bt cry1 had significantly (p&lt;0.05) the least number of damaged pods in the field compared to the mixture of cry1 and cry 2. These results demonstrate the potential of isolated Bt cry1 and cry 2 to manage pod borers infestation of pigeon peas in the field.</p> J. J. Arusei D. Kilalo D. W. Miano J. N. Mburu S. Onyoyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 87 3&4 12 12 Influence of Exogenous Hormones and Buck Effect on Galla Goat Productivity in Kenyan Rangelands https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/659 <p>Injected estrus hormones are essential in synchronising mating in goats (Capra hircus). This study aimed to determine the response of does injected with hormone and the presence of the buck to stimulate estrus in goats. The does in this study were between first and fourth parity, with a mean age of 4.61 ± 2.02 years and mean body condition score (BCS) of 3.00. The six intact bucks aged 5.2 ± 1.25 years had and a mean BCS of 4.667 ± 0.25. There were two treatments; The Buck effect group (BEG) and the Hormone effect group (HEG). In each treatment there were three replications of n = 10 does. For BEG, males joined does for 21 days. For HEG, estrus was synchronised by injecting 1ml (50 mcg Gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (Cystorelin®) on day zero and day 9 and by injecting 2 ml (100 mcg) of Prostaglandin PGF2α (Enzaprost®) on day 7 and after that bucks introduced for natural mating after 8 hours. After 45 days, a pregnancy test was done using a B-mode ultrasound scanner transducer of 5 MHz. Estrus response and the conception data analysed using SPSS version 22 software of 2013 showed a significant difference (p˂ 0.05) between the does treated with hormone and those responding to the presence of the buck. The buck effect group had a higher estrus response of 90% than those administered with exogenous hormones 66.7%. Therefore, adopting assisted reproductive techniques using “male effect” may improve reproduction in local hardy Galla goat and enhance their resilience in an ever-changing environment.</p> L. M. Wambulwa J.O. Jung’a C. B. Rawlynce S. M. Mbuku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 87 3&4 9 9 Pastoralists’ Adaptive Strategies under Changing Climate in Samburu County: Key Informants’ Perspectives https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/656 <p>The continued rise in global temperature, increasing&nbsp;rainfall intensity and frequency of droughts would have&nbsp;severe impacts on pastoralists’ livelihoods. The pastoralist&nbsp;communities manage resource unpredictable through&nbsp;regular herd movement and dividing their grazing areas for&nbsp;utilization into dry and wet season. However, little attention&nbsp;has been paid to the information on which pastoralists&nbsp;base their methods for managing resources and how&nbsp;they view major problems that affect herd mobility. This&nbsp;study examined how key informants perceived climate&nbsp;variability and livestock disease effects on pastoralists’&nbsp;livelihoods, their coping strategies and the institutional&nbsp;support systems available. Interviews with key informants&nbsp;were used. A total of twenty-two (22) key informants were&nbsp;purposively selected to be interviewed. These included&nbsp;veterinary officers, livestock officers, veterinary drugs&nbsp;outlet merchants and other key stakeholders from each of&nbsp;the three sub-counties of Samburu County. Themes and&nbsp;sub-themes were developed through qualitative analysis&nbsp;of key informant data. The respondents observed that&nbsp;there has been climatic variations that has continued to&nbsp;affect pastoralists. The effects of the changes included&nbsp;increase of livestock mortality, disease occurrences, and&nbsp;frequent herd migrations. The study suggests controlled&nbsp;herd mobility and grazing management, and continuous&nbsp;vaccination of livestock to reduce disease recurrence. The&nbsp;development of grazing management committees, drug&nbsp;provision, additional livestock treatment centres, and&nbsp;vaccination of livestock before entry into disease infested areas are also recommended.</p> G. L. Lelenguyah M. M. Nyangito O. V. Wasonga R. C. Bett ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 87 3&4 11 11 Analysis of Temporal Rainfall and Temperature Trends in Marsabit County, Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/657 <p>The study was conceptualized in line with action theory of adaptation to climate change. In the context of the study, the stimulus is the statistical changes in temperature and precipitation which affects an exposure unit who are the agro-pastoralists. Knowledge on these phenomena is important in agricultural productivity. The effects on the exposure unit which include food security makes the agro-pastoralists to adapt strategies to climate perturbations. The objective of the study was to analyse temperature and rainfall trends in Saku Sub-County in Marsabit County, Kenya from 1980-2020. Mann Kendall test and Sen’s slopes were used to analyse data using XLSTAT software. The secondary data was sourced from Kenya Meteorological Department in Nairobi. Rainfall was found to be decreasing and temperatures were increasing significantly at 5% level. Decreasing rainfall and increasing maximum temperature trends were significant in August and September while the minimum temperature trend significantly increased in all the months.Timely access to weather information on climate extremities is vital for making important decisions since climate change is a reality in Marsabit County.</p> A. Gudere E. Ndunda E. Wemali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 87 3&4 9 9 Performance Response of Brachiaria Grass to Zinc Sulphate Fertilizer Soil Application Rates https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/658 <p>The content of micronutrient in grass is important for quality improvement of livestock feed. The objective of this study was to determine the response of Brachiaria grass to zinc-enriched fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Zinc Sulphate was applied at four treatment levels comprising T1 = 0% Zn (ZnSO4 at 0 kg/ha.), T2 = 50% Zn (ZnSO4 at 45.6 kg/ha, T3 = 100% Zn (ZnSO4 at 91.2 kg/ha) and T4 = 150% Zn (ZnSO4 at 136.8 kg/ha). Zinc fertilizer treatment had a significant effect on zinc concentration in Brachiaria grass at p&lt;0.001. Significant differences were observed among all the four mean concentrations of zinc in grass except between 0% and 50% and between 100% and 150% Zn. The results showed that the fertilization of Brachiaria grass with Zinc fertilizer application at 100% (91.2 kg/ha) level resulted in the optimal Zinc uptake and Zinc concentration in Brachiaria biomass. Considering the input cost of applying Zinc-fortified fertilizers, application of ZnSO4 at the rate of 91.2 kg/ha (100% concentration) is recommended. Consequently, Zinc uptake in bio-fortified Brachiaria grass correlate with increasing levels of Zinc fertilizer application in the soil. The application of Zinc-fortified fertilizers in Brachiaria production will enhance fodder quality and yields to meet the increasing demand for animal feeds and increase food production for the growing population.</p> L. K. Mworia D. W. Kaindi S. M. Mutua J. Wamiti J. M. Muia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 87 3&4 6 6 Genetic Diversity of Potato Cyst Nematode Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (Its) and Simple Sequence Repeat Markers https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/655 <p>Genetic diversity of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp) is important in potato breeding programmes worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of potato cyst nematode (PCN) populations from Nyandarua, Nakuru and Meru Counties in Kenya. Twenty simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, four of which were newly designed for this study were used to genotype the 88 PCN samples. Fragments of DNA were amplified using 434 bp primer (ITS5/PITSr3) specific for Globodera. rostochiensis. From 20 SSR markers, four were polymorphic and specific for PCN. The expected heterozygosity (He) and Shannon’s index (I) ranged from 0.32 to 0.50 and from 0.50 to 0.69, respectively, across the 3 populations. As a result, the He and I values indicated a limited range of genetic diversity and heterozygote deficiency between the samples. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.344 to 0.365 indicating an intermediate polymorphism (PIC ≥ 0.25) across the populations. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the highest genetic variance 96% (P&lt;0.001) was due to intra-population variance. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Nei’s genetic dissimilarity and the entire population was grouped into two major clusters and five sub-clusters. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that the variance accounted for by the first 3 principal coordinates were 27.73, 28.89 and 24.42, respectively. The Bayesian model-based population structure analysis assembled the populations into K=6 distinct genetic structures based on the highest ΔK=8.25. The fixation index (Fst) ranged from 0.02 to 0.05, indicating that the three G. rostochiensis populations had low genetic differentiation. The results from this study suggest that there was low genetic diversity among the PCN evaluated across the Counties.</p> M. W. Mbiyu W. M. Muiru J. W. Kimenju M. W. Nyongesa S. Haukeland ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 87 3&4 14 14 Effects of Drought on Morpho-Physiological and Biomass Yield of Guinea Grass Accessions https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/649 <p>Drought is one of the abiotic factors that limits growth of Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus/Panicum maximum) in areas that experience moisture deficit. The objective of the study was to determine effects of drought on morpho-physiological and biomass yield of guinea grass accessions. Thirty guinea grass accessions were evaluated across 3 environments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a split-plot arrangement. Irrigation was considered as main plot while guinea grass accession was allocated to sub-plots. In this study, the accessions differed significantly (P≤0.001) for all the traits considered. Effects due to environment, water regime, environment × water regime, variety, environment × variety, environment × water regime × variety interaction, environment × month, month × water regime were significant (p≤0.001) for all the traits measured. The number of tillers, plant height, leaf length and width were significantly high for plants grown in Marigat environment. Guinea grass grown under irrigated condition produced mean fresh biomass yield of 12.74 tonnes/ha whereas under water stressed conditions production was 10.71tonnes/ha. Broad sense heritability [H2] was high with value of 0.80 for germination, followed by number of tillers/plant 0.70, fresh biomass 0.64 and moderate for leaf length 0.55, leaf width 0.51, panicle height 0.49 and number of flowered plants 0.45. This suggests that the germination is a heritable trait in guinea grass. In contrast, low H2 were observed for number of nodes (0.32), plant height (0.21), and stem diameter (0.26) . Guinea grass accessions MK4, MK3, Maasai, 16019 and 6945 were tolerant to drought hence suitable for arid and semi-arid.</p> S. C. Siele F. M. Nzuve J. J. Cheboi E. C. Kirwa D. M. Mwangi B. Wanjala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 87 3&4 15 15 Effect of Climate Variability on Agricultural Yields in West Pokot County, Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/650 <p>Climate is a key factor of rain fed agriculture. Changes in temperature and precipitation are considered the most important climatic parameters that affect crop and livestock production in the semi-arid areas. This study sought to improve local understanding of the associations between weather and climate on agricultural yields so as to enable make appropriate adaptation measures. This was achieved by determining the relationships between climate variables and agricultural yields (crop and livestock) among small-scale agro-pastoralists in West Pokot County, Kenya. Primary data were collected from a sample of 384 household heads and validated through focus group discussions, key informant interviews and general observations. The historical agricultural yield and climate data for 40 years (1981 and 2020) was used. Stratified, purposive and random sampling techniques were used during the study. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS V22) and micro soft excel, linear regression, correlation analysis, coefficient of variation, and Mann Kendall test. Results of the household perceptions on agricultural production revealed increasing crop trends and a mix of increasing and decreasing livestock trends over time. High variability was observed for crops and livestock. Trend analysis of maize crop (Zea mays L.) revealed insignificantly no yield increase while bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed a significantly decreasing yield and a significantly increasing trend observed for livestock biomass measured in tropical livestock units (TLUs). For climatic trends, significantly increasing trends in annual and seasonal (only June July August – JJA and September October November-SON) rainfall trends which also match the household perception were noted. No significant trends in annual and seasonal average temperature except for December January February (DJF) season which do not match the household perceptions were observed. Correlation analysis revealed significantly weak negative relationships for crop yields and strong positive relationships for Tropical Livestock Units (TLUs) with climatic (rainfall and temperature) variables. Multiple regression analysis described 73.5% and 60.3% of the changes in crop yields and TLUs respectively was controlled by average rainfall and average temperature. The results are crucial in understanding the impact of changing climate on agricultural yields and are vital in the planning and development of appropriate and sustainable adaptation mechanisms in support of enhancing resilience of the small scale agro pastoral communities to tackle climate variability and change.</p> W. K. Kiplagat G.O. Ouma A. A. Ali P. O. Omondi J.T. Lolemtum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 87 3&4 20 20 Socio Economic factors affecting milk production among Smallholder dairy farmers in West Pokot County, Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/651 <p>Livestock production contributes significantly to the development of the Kenyan economy. In West Pokot County, agriculture and livestock account for 84% of the county’s economy. It is expected to be the county’s main driver to sustainably achieve a 10% annual economic growth rate and 30% poverty reduction by 2030. Dairy farms in South and West Pokot Sub Counties have been unable to achieve maximum production. This has led to a reduction in smallholder dairy farmers’ livelihoods. They have become vulnerable in terms of food and income security and hence have been unable to gather for their daily needs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse farm specific socio-economic factors affecting milk production among smallholder dairy farmers in West Pokot County, Kenya. The study adopted descriptive and cross-sectional research. Data was collected from a sample of 383 smallholder dairy farmers from four wards in two sub-counties of South and West in West Pokot County, complimented with interviews from 11 key informants. A questionnaire and an interview schedule were used to collect primary data from the dairy farmers and key informants, respectively. Summary statistics showed that the average age of the respondents was 45.6 years who owned on average five dairy cows that produced 7.3 l of milk/cow/day. The fitted multiple regression model showed that age, family size, experience and main occupation had a significant impact on milk production at 1%, 5% and 10% significance levels respectively. A unit increase in, family size, experience and main occupation of smallholder dairy farmer led to an increase in milk production by a coefficient of 87.64, 0.3911, and 13.45 respectively. An increase in farmer’s age by a 1 year led to reduction in milk production by 0.5193 l/cow/day. Therefore, both national and county governments should strategize ways of increasing experience through educative programs tailored towards more skills and technologies tailored towards increased milk production. Moreover, smallholder dairy farmers should be motivated towards investing and wholly dedicated to dairy farming; through constant and favourable milk prices. In addition, the youth and energetic smallholder dairy farmers should be motivated to investing in dairy farming.</p> E. Jerop E.K. Ngeno F. K. Wamalwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 87 3&4 9 9 Technical efficiency analysis of pigeon pea production in Machakos County, Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/652 <p>Pigeon pea is a drought-tolerant crop mainly grown by small-scale growers in arid and semi-arid regions mostly for income generation and enhancing food security. Nevertheless, its production remains low. Smallholder pigeon pea farmers are often faced with resource-use inefficiency and high costs of inputs in production implying that proper and efficient allocation of resources is vital to guarantee farmers attainment of additional benefits from their input. Hence, this study aimed at estimating technical efficiency and examining factors influencing technical efficiency of pigeon pea production in Machakos County, Kenya. The sample size was 346 respondents targeting pigeon pea farming households’ population. The study relied on primary data collected using structured questionnaire administered to the farmers. The County was purposively selected for the study. The inefficiency effect model and a Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production analysis method were utilised to estimate technical efficiency and determine the factors that influence pigeon pea farmers’ efficiency. The maximum likelihood parameter estimates illustrated that the size of the land, labour and quantity of seeds had a positive influence on the output of the pigeon pea. The technical efficiency levels ranged from 0.09 to 0.86, according to the findings. The estimated mean level of technical efficiency of the sample farmers, which was approximately 0.59, demonstrates the likelihood of increasing the quantity of pigeon pea yield by 41%. Some of the factors that influenced output were farm size, quantity of seeds, manure and labour. Factors that influenced technical efficiency positively were farming experience, education, off-farm income and access to credit, whereas gender, age and occupation of the household head, negatively influenced technical efficiency. The study recommends enhancement of extension services and programs by the County to improve farmers’ capacity to increase pigeon pea productivity.</p> N.S. Makena G. Mwenjeri L. Ngare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 87 3&4 10 10 Evaluation of Field Cricket as a Replacement for Nile Tilapia Feeds in Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/654 <p>feed accounts for more than 50% of the total variable production cost in an intensive aquaculture system. However one of the most pressing current challenges for aquaculture in Kenya is lack of affordable aqua feeds for different stages of fish development. Dependency on fish meal as source of protein is currently high due to limited alternative sources.Therefore the objective of this study was to determine growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed on field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) meal and how inclusion of cricket meal affects the fish culture water quality. Field crickets were processed and incorporated in the diet to replace fish meal at varying extent to comprise the following four treatment diets in triplicate; 0% field cricket meal and 100% fish meal (T0), 25% field cricket meal and 75% fish meal (T1), 50% field cricket meal and 50% fish meal (T2), 100% field cricket meal with 0% fish meal (T3) and commercial feed (T4). The effects of different diets on growth parameters and water quality parameters were analysed using GENSTAT 15TH Edition. Nile Tilapia fingerlings weight and length increased significantly from a mean of 0.996g to 12.476g and from 3.935cm to 8.955cm at the end of the experiment. Fish fed on T0 (0% cricket meal) had the highest weight gain 15.097g while T3 (100% cricket meal) had the lowest weight gain (9.731g). Survival rate of fry throughout the culture period was highest in T1 (25% cricket meal) at 96.7% and lowest in T3 (100% cricket meal) 93.3% and there was no significant difference in all the treatments. In conclusion 100% fish meal in the diet showed the best growth perfomance while, inclusion of field cricket meal in diet had no significant impact on water quality and survival rate. It is recommended to further research should be done on viability of cricket meal on fish growth.</p> L.W. Mugo G.J. Gordon V. Wangondu S. Okoth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 87 3&4 10 10 Analysis of the Spatial-Temporal Variability of Rainfall and Temperature and Their Effects on Pastoralist in West Pokot County, Kenya https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/646 <p>This study examined pastoralists’ vulnerability to climate change by analyzing climate variables (temperature and rainfall). It also examined the characteristics of pastoralists that reflect their exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity factoring definition of vulnerability as a function of high level of exposure, and sensitivity to climate shocks. The objective of this study was to examine the spatial-temporal variability of climate in West Pokot County, which was determined using trend and seasonal analysis of temperature and rainfall data from climate hazard infrared temperature station data (CHIRTS) and climate hazard infrared precipitation station data (CHIRPS) for the period of 1981-2019. The findings show that temperature was increasing in the county but at different rates in different sub-counties with Pokot Central subcounty having sharp increasing trend followed by Pokot North sub-county during the October-November-December (OND) season. On the other hand, rainfall showed a slight increasing trend both in OND and March- April-May (MAM) seasons. The study shows sharp increase in maximum temperature in OND, The study shows that increased anthropogenic activities, such as deforestation, poor land use and overstocking, have gradually led to an increase in global warming that increases surface temperature.</p> S. D. Domokwang E. Bosire J. Ngaina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 87 3&4 11 11 Identification of Drought Tolerant Kenyan Brachiaria Ecotypes Using Drought Tolerance Indices https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/645 <p>Drought is one of the major abiotic stress factors limiting agricultural productivity globally. Brachiaria also known as signal grass is a native of sub-tropical and tropical Africa and important in livestock production. The grass has many advantages including; high biomass, high nutritional value, adaptation to drought and low fertility soils, sequestration of carbon, enhanced nitrogen uses efficiency and low greenhouse gas emissions. Emergence of climate change with increased global temperatures has led to prolonged drought which has adversely affected the improved Brachiaria hybrids. Locally available ecotypes are a rich source of unique genes and characteristics that could be key in developing drought resilient hybrids. The objectives of this study were to i) assess the effectiveness of various indices in selection of drought tolerant Kenyan Brachiaria ecotypes, ii) evaluate the relationship between the indices and iii) to identify high yielding and stable ecotypes under stressed condition. The design of the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3 x 25). A total of 11drought tolerance indices; tolerance (TOL), stress Tolerance Index (STI), mean productivity (MP), yield stability index (YSI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), stress susceptibility index (SSI), Yield Index (YI), harmonic Mean (HM), drought intensity index (DII), modified stress tolerance k1 and modified stress tolerance k2 were calculated based on shoot biomass production under non-stressed (YP) and stressed (YS) conditions. Rank means, rank sum and standard deviation were also used to identify the tolerant materials. In the previous experiment, various physiological parameters were scored which included; leaf relative water content, relative chlorophyll content using SPAD -502 Chlorophyll meter (Minota Co), leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight and leaf relative water #Corresponding author: lydiawmugo@yahoo.com content. Relative water content was also estimated and comparative scores were done between control, medium and extreme or water deficit experiments. Based on all the indices and ranking, BrK 1, BrK 6, BrK 7, BrK13 and BrK 18 were the most tolerant in stressed condition. These ecotypes can be recommended for planting in areas prone to drought. More studies on the identified tolerant ecotypes are essential to ascertain whether the materials hold unique genes that could later be introgressed into various breeding schemes to confer tolerance.</p> Awalla B. J. B. A Were J. Binnot ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-28 2023-11-28 87 3&4 11 11 Drench effect of orthosilicic acid on drought stress tolerance on morphological and phenotypic traits of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l. Moench) landraces https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/670 <p>Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors that limit Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Moench) production. The objective of this study was to ameliorate the effects of the application of orthosilicic acid on morphological parameters in sorghum landraces. A potted experiment was conducted under a controlled environment in Kitui County Kenya (01o21’48.0” N - 037o 81’08.7” E) in the years 2020 and 2022 to evaluate sorghum landraces Machakos Local brown, Kitui rasta, and Kitui Local brown in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD)- in a 2x3 factorial arrangement with six treatments in 1-Si, high H2O, 1-Si, medium H2O, 1-Si, low H2O, 0-Si, medium H2O, 0-Si, low H2O and 0-Si, optimal H2O . In this study, a high phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed among the five traits.High heritability of 94.24%, 96%, and 98.3% was observed for plant height, and 46%, 43.08%, and 35% were observed for yield as well as a high genetic advance over mean (GAM) for final plant height 26%, 37.48%, 37.5% in the three landraces Machakos Local Brown, Kitui rasta and Kitui Local Brown respectively. A high water use efficiency (WUE) in landrace Kitui local brown a differential in the mean of observed 0.085 under silicon treatment and 0.06 under no silicon application were observed, which denotes 25% in differential values, a high grain yield, and a harvest index of 60% and 0.82, respectively. The study showed that the composite application of Si and H2O in sorghum is key in improving the studied traits.</p> Kimani A. M. Henga S. A. Kimani W. Muui C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 87 3&4 14 14