https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/issue/feed East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 2021-05-12T18:29:53+00:00 Jack Ouda jack.Ouda@kalro.org Open Journal Systems <div id="91b6062e-1bf8-419c-93d0-79a4f3903015" class="widget general-html none widget-none widget-compact-all"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-all"> <h1>Journal information</h1> </div> </div> </div> <div id="6a7ebf57-ace8-43ae-a6bd-c9bc01bddf18" class="widget literatumSerialDetails none widget-none widget-compact-all"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-all"><span class="serial-item serialDetailsIssn"> <span class="serial-title">Print ISSN:</span> 0012-8325</span> <span class="serial-item serialDetailsEissn"> <span class="serial-title">Online ISSN:</span> 2313-450X</span></div> </div> </div> <div id="8af55cbd-03a5-4deb-9086-061d8da288d1" class="widget general-html none widget-none widget-compact-horizontal"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-horizontal"> <div>4 issues per year</div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="d2bf14dd-a459-4dde-a6b2-c22a5b665e72" class="widget general-html none widget-none widget-compact-horizontal"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-horizontal"> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis make every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the "Content") contained in our publications. However, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation and our publisher Taylor &amp; Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to, or arising out of the use of the Content. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions">http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</a> .</div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="5feee70b-a8d8-4333-9403-eec0891b6df7" class="widget literatumSerialHistory none widget-none widget-compact-horizontal"> <div class="wrapped "> <div class="widget-body body body-none body-compact-horizontal"> <h2>Publication history</h2> <h3>Currently known as:</h3> <ul> <li class="show">East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal <span class="dates"> (1960 - current) </span></li> </ul> <h3>Formerly known as</h3> <ul> <li class="show">The East African Agricultural Journal <span class="dates"> (1909 - 1960)</span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/471 Compartmentalized Allometric Equation for estimating volume and biomass of eucalyptus in agroforestry systems in Kenya 2021-05-12T12:06:45+00:00 Bor N C EFJJournals@kalro.org Muchiri M N EFJJournals@kalro.org Kigomo J N EFJJournals@kalro.org Hyvönen P EFJJournals@kalro.org Nduati P N EFJJournals@kalro.org Haakana H EFJJournals@kalro.org Owuor N O EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>This study used a sample of forty-one <em>Eucalyptus grandis</em> trees ranging from 4 to 44 cm diameter at breast height (dbh). The trees were destructively sampled in Nakuru and Kiambu counties, purposely selected in agro-ecological zone II, III and IV, to collect data on the different compartments to develop compartmentalized volume and biomass models. Stem volumes for the whole tree height or to a specific diameter point from the root point were calculated by integrals of splines formed from taper curves of different diameter points. Densities of different compartments of the stem, branches, stump and roots were determined by dividing their sample disks oven dry weight (wood and bark separately) with the fresh volume of the sample disk, whereas, twigs and foliage densities were determined by dividing their sample dry weight with fresh weight. Compartment’s biomass was calculated by multiplying their volume with respective density.</p> <p>Five equations relating volume/biomass of the different compartments to variables including dbh, tree height and crown length were fitted to the data using R -3.3.3 statistical software. The best model was the one with the lowest Akaike Information Criterion values (AIC) and Residual Standard Error (RSE). The findings show that tree height and dbh were the best predictor for volume and biomass of the different compartments.</p> <p>The developed models are recommended for quantification of compartmentalized products of<em> E. grandis</em> and their carbon stocks. The utilized methodology may also be of interest to researchers, planners and academicians.</p> 2019-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/466 Piloting Biomass energy audit for energy and environmental conservation in Homa-bay County, Kenya 2021-05-12T13:49:40+00:00 Kitheka E EFJJournals@kalro.org Ogutu C EFJJournals@kalro.org Ingutia C EFJJournals@kalro.org Muga M EFJJournals@kalro.org Githiomi J EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Biomass energy meets about&nbsp; 70% of Kenyans national energy&nbsp; requirements and over 90% of rural population are depended on it. However, the traditional ways of producing and utilizing the bioenergy&nbsp; is inefficient and therefore unsustainable. Bioenergy&nbsp; consumers expecially households, institutions and local enterprises lack adequate knowledge on their consumption levels,&nbsp; available energy conservation technologies, alternative fuels like briquettes&nbsp; and areas of energy wastage. Piloting biomass energy audit was undertaken in Homa-Bay County with objectives of determining the consumption trends of&nbsp; the&nbsp; consumers, the types of fuel used, sources of the fuels, utilization technologies&nbsp; and identify areas of energy wastage. Semi-structured questionnaire and an energy audit tool were used to collect information from the respondents. Results showed that biomass energy is the main energy type for majority of the respondents for cooking and heating. The traditional three stone and&nbsp; metal cook stoves are the most preferred stoves. At household level, fuelwood&nbsp; is sourced from own farms and neighbouring&nbsp; community forests while fuelwood and charcoal for&nbsp; institutions and domestic use are&nbsp; obtained&nbsp; from&nbsp; markets. On average bioenergy takes 30% of the total domestic and institutional kitchen expenditure and&nbsp;&nbsp; this has contributed significantly towards higher energy bills in institutions and at household’s levels. The study shows that energy efficiency audit is critical for consumers to track their consumption trends and&nbsp; identify areas of energy wastage. The study recommends frequent energy audit, use of&nbsp; energy saving technologies and establishment of woodlots as strategies&nbsp; for energy conservation.</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/465 On-farm tree growing opportunities and constraints in Murang’a county, Kenya 2021-05-12T13:52:55+00:00 Peter Gachie EFJJournals@kalro.org Jonah Kipsat EFJJournals@kalro.org Joshua Cheboiwo EFJJournals@kalro.org Milton Esitubi EFJJournals@kalro.org James Mwaura EFJJournals@kalro.org Peninah Wairimu EFJJournals@kalro.org Miriam Gathogo EFJJournals@kalro.org <table width="346"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="346"> <p>*Author of correspondence:</p> <p>&nbsp;<u>pgachie@yahoo.com</u> or pgachie@kefri.org</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Careful and efficient collection of information on agroforestry practices at different agro-ecological zones has a great contribution to promote or to improve important agroforestry practices. This survey was conducted with the objective of identifying major reasons for on-farm tree planting, tree species preferred and prioritizing major constraints to tree planting in Murang’a County, Kenya. The survey was done on 141 selected farmer households in Murang’a North, South and East sub-counties. The data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software. The tree species most popular in all the studied sub-counties included <em>G. robusta, C. eminii, P. americana </em>and<em> C. macrostachyus</em>. These species are valued by&nbsp; farmers for their products including fuelwood, fruits, timber, fencing and ornamental. From the study, 30 tree uses were recorded. About 81% of respondents face various constraints in tree growing such as drought, pest attack, theft, high cost of seedlings, poor soils, animal browsing and trees competition with crops. Despite the constraints, 93% of respondents had plans to plant more trees in future, with preferred species being <em>G. robusta</em>, <em>P. americana</em>, <em>M. indica</em>&nbsp; and <em>Eucalyptus spp.</em> These species were preferred because of their high benefits as souces of income, timber, fuelwood, and fruits. Farmers also prefered tree species that didn’t compete with agricultural crops and potrayed faster growth. Most of the farmers with future tree planting plans preferred boundaries planting. The study findings can guide tree planting in Muranga county and other similar areas</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/468 Land cover changes and its effects on streamflow in the Malewa River Basin, Kenya 2021-05-12T14:22:21+00:00 Cheruiyot M. K. EFJJournals@kalro.org Gathuru G EFJJournals@kalro.org Koske J EFJJournals@kalro.org Soyc R EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Vegetated landscapes are transformed by both natural and human causes. This is thought to influence river flow regimes. It is argued that restored and reforested landscapes increase stream flow. However, studies done to date have been inconclusive on whether or not trees on restored or reforested landscapes increase stream flow. This study aimed to examine the effects of land cover changes on streamflow of the Malewa River Basin in Kenya. Satellite imagery based spatial change detection using ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS IMAGINE software was deployed to estimate the land cover changes. Based on projected land cover change data, a multiple regression technique was used to establish the relationship between land cover and streamflow. The results show that at Gauge 2GB01, area under wetland significantly predicted stream flows (<em>b</em>=0.134, <em>t</em>(488) =1.978, <em>p</em>=0.049), with an overall model (R<sup>2</sup>=0.018, <em>F</em>(3, 488)=2.976, <em>p</em>=0.031). Area under grassland (<em>b</em>=0.108, <em>t</em>(488)=2.325, <em>p</em>=0.02), shrubland (<em>b</em>=0.112, <em>t</em>(488)=1.976, <em>p</em>=0.049) and amount of rainfall (<em>b</em>=0.533, <em>t</em>(488)=14.048, <em>p</em>=0.000) combined significantly predicted stream flows. Rainfall alone significantly predicted stream flows (<em>b</em>=0.531, <em>t</em>(488)=13.885, <em>p</em>=0.000). Overall, the gains in forest restoration did not specifically influence streamflow except in combination with other vegetation and rainfall. There is need to increase soil cover rather than woody biomass alone in the regulation of stream flows. A systematic response to address the drivers of change in land cover is also needed.</p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/464 Evaluating willingness to pay for watershed protection in Ndaka-Ini Dam, Murang’a County, Kenya 2021-05-12T14:25:50+00:00 Kagombe Joram EFJJournals@kalro.org Kungu James EFJJournals@kalro.org Mugendi Daniel EFJJournals@kalro.org Cheboiwo Joshua EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Payment for Environmental Services is an incentive based approach in natural resource management linking the suppliers and consumers of goods and services from a natural resource in a way that both parties contribute to improved delivery Nairobi City gets 80% of water supply from Ndakaini dam but few of the residents are able to link availability of clean water in their pipes to conservation of water catchments areas. The objective of the study was to find out whether users of water from Ndaka-ini dam could participate in watershed protection scheme through Payment for Water Services. The study identified factors that could influence willingness of water users to pay for the environment services. Primary and secondary data were collected based on baseline survey and qualitative research approaches, interview schedules, questionnaires and, focus group discussions.&nbsp; Results showed that 83% of farmers are willing to participate in scheme aimed at improving conservation. There was significant relationship between source of water and amount of money they could give but attached condition of clean and regular water. The government could make use of the findings of the study to develop a payment of environment service model for Ndakaini dam.</p> 2019-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/482 Viability of East African Sandalwood Seed Stored at various temperatures for two yearscan sandalwood 2021-05-12T16:58:00+00:00 Kamondo B.M EFJJournals@kalro.org Kariuki J.G EFJJournals@kalro.org Nyamongo D.O EFJJournals@kalro.org Giathi G EFJJournals@kalro.org Wafula A.W EFJJournals@kalro.org G.M. Muturi EFJJournals@kalro.org <table width="346"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="346"> <p>*Author of correspondence: b.kamondo@kefri.org</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>East African Sandalwood<em> (Osyris lanceolata)</em> is highly valued in the manufacturing of perfumery and medicinal products, and there is need for its domestication. Seed storage behavior was determined as the information is important in planning and implementing the species planting programmes and conservation strategies. Fresh seeds and those&nbsp; dried to a moisture content of 7% were placed in airtight plastic vials and stored at&nbsp; a constant temperature of 20<sup>0</sup>C, ambient temperature and in a cold room set at -20<sup>0</sup>C, respectively. At 0, 3, 9, 12 and 24 months of storage, seeds were subjected to a germination test. At month zero, dried seeds had scored better in mean parameter values for germination capacity (G), mean germination time (MT) and germination value (GV) than fresh seeds. Germination capacity of seed stored fresh dropped rapidly by the third month&nbsp; in all the storage environments from 69 % to mean less than 16 % making it inconsequential to test for storability. Germination capacity of dried seed dropped gradually in all the storage environments.. Dried seed stored at ambient and constant temperatures registered G of over 70 % in 3 months and over 60 % at 3 to 9 months. By 24 months, the G dropped drastically to 21 % for seed stored at ambient and constant temperatures and to 29 % for seed stored in cold room. There was significant difference in G, GV and MT (p&lt;0.01) depending on the period of storage. The results indicate that sandalwood seed is neither a classical recalcitrant nor orthodox and may be classified as having intermediate seed storage behaviour but withstanding drying to low moisture content.</p> 2021-03-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/352 Indigenous traditional knowledge on landscapes, biodiversity use in Mt. Elgon Forest Ecosystem and implication for conservation 2021-05-12T17:09:14+00:00 Langat D EFJJournals@kalro.org Khalwale T EFJJournals@kalro.org Kisiwa A EFJJournals@kalro.org Ongugo P EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>The integrity of the forest ecosystem is shaped by communities’ uses, traditional knowledge, and practices. Because community participation is critical in the management of conservation areas, it is essential that resource managers and policymakers understand local traditional knowledge, biodiversity use to inform appropriate interventions. This study was undertaken to document traditional indigenous knowledge on landscapes, biodiversity uses, and their impacts. It formed part of a wider study meant to develop forest restoration efforts to enhance the flow of ecosystems services and livelihoods of local communities in the Mt. Elgon forest ecosystem. The study used Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques to capture traditional indigenous knowledge on landscapes, forest biodiversity uses, and their importance to local livelihoods. Types of landscapes and biodiversity uses were free listed and importance value assessed using the weighted ranking method. Twelve landscapes were identified as important to local people and their associated faunal and floral species. Fifteen plant and ten animal species were ranked in order of importance to local communities. These forest biodiversity resources provide human health, shelter, cultural and spiritual wellbeing, and cash income. This study has shown that forest biodiversity is important to the local livelihoods and local people have wealth of traditional knowledge on forest biodiversity, uses, and management practices. Although traditional knowledge is gradually declining because of socioeconomic and cultural change; it is imperative to integrate some of this knowledge in forest management.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/473 Community perception of ecosystem services and management implications of three forests in Western part of Kenya 2021-05-12T17:19:41+00:00 Kisiwa A EFJJournals@kalro.org Langat K EFJJournals@kalro.org Gatama S EFJJournals@kalro.org Okoth S EFJJournals@kalro.org Kiprop J EFJJournals@kalro.org Cheboiwo J EFJJournals@kalro.org Kagombe J EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Understanding local community perceptions of forest Ecosystem Services (ES) is critical in crafting viable conservation strategies or management plans sensitive to livelihoods of the local people. This is because One major driver of forest degradation is lack of appreciation of ecosystem values and low perception of forest ecosystems by diversity of stakeholders. Current conservation discourse recognizes the integration of local views and perception of forest Ecosystem Services (ES). This study investigated forest ES their importance to local communities, threats and current and future flow in Mau, Cherangany and Mt. Elgon forest ecosystems. The study collected data using Participatory Rural Appraisal methods&nbsp; to identify the ES. The identified forest ES were ranked in a participatory exercises using weighted ranking method (Pebble Distribution Method (PDM). Twenty-five ES were identified Water provision ranked the highest with importance value of between 15 % - 24 % in the 3 ecosystems. Water was also identified as the only ES that will remain important today, and&nbsp; 10 years to come. Main threats were identified as demand for wood products, encroachment and overgrazing. However, future importance value of the ES linked to this threats is predicted to reduce. This paper clearly demonstrates the high value of provisioning services by local communities relative to the other ES categories, which is critical in influencing the behavior of the local people and in enabling incorporation of local values in management plans and policies.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/335 Cost-benefit analysis of agroforestry technologies in semi-arid regions of West-Pokot county, Kenya 2021-05-12T17:25:51+00:00 Mandila B EFJJournals@kalro.org Hitimana J EFJJournals@kalro.org Kiplagat K EFJJournals@kalro.org Mengich E EFJJournals@kalro.org Namaswa T EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>West-Pokot County, Kenya experiences harsh arid and semi-arid climatic conditions associated with high poverty indicators. To alleviate poverty, NonGovernmental Organizations initiated projects to promote agroforestry in order to increase sustainable farm forestry management for food, energy security and wealth creation. However, adoption of agroforestry technologies has been slow in these regions due to scanty information on their profitability. This study determined costs, benefits and benefit-cost ratios (B/C) of agroforestry technologies in West-Pokot with the aim of scaling up of profitable and sustainable agroforestry. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two sub-locations of the county, Lelan and Chepareria. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 91 and 90 households respectively. Questionnaire based interviews and field observations were used in collecting data. Mann–Whitney <em>U</em> test was used for pair wise analysis to determine B/C ratios of agroforestry technologies in Chepareria and Lelan that were significantly different. Boundary tree planting had the highest B/C in Lelan (9.4) and Chepareria (6.88), while scattered trees on farm had the lowest B/C of 0.68 in Lelan and 1.11 in Chepareria. Mann Whitney <em>U</em> test indicated that the B/C ratios of agroforestry technologies in Chepareria and Lelan were significantly different (<em>U</em>= 210.500, P &lt; 0.005). Boundary planting and fodder bank technologies had higher B/C in Lelan as compared to Chepareria. In conclusion, all agroforestry technologies, except scattered trees on farms in Lelan were profitable in West-Pokot as they had a B/C greater than 1</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/334 Optimization of piperine extraction from black pepper (piper nigrum) using different solvents for control of bedbugs 2021-05-12T17:40:06+00:00 Matena H G EFJJournals@kalro.org Kariuki N Z EFJJournals@kalro.org Ongarora B G EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Synthetic insecticides are known to cause negative environmental impact, an outcome which has led to increased reaseach activity on natural bioresources as possible substitutes. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of piperine in controlling bedbugs. Black pepper (<em>Piper nigrum </em>L.) and all the reagents were obtained from commercial sources and used without further purification. The optimal conditions for piperine extraction and its efficacy as an insecticide were investigated.</p> <p>Piperine (C<sub>17</sub>H<sub>19</sub>NO<sub>3</sub>) was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method and its properties&nbsp; determined. Ethanol (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>5</sub>OH) gave the highest yield of piperine compared to dichloromethane (CH<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>2</sub>). Due to low water-solubility of piperine, different solvent mixtures were used to improve solubility. Toxicity against bedbugs (<em>Cimex lectularius</em>) was carried out and the optimum concentration determined to be 1.4 g L<sup>-1</sup> of piperine in an aliquot&nbsp; of ethanol/ water (v/v 1:4). At this concentration, both mature and young bedbugs took approximately 300-minute post-exposure to die. The extract was also 100% effective in inhibiting hatching of bedbug eggs while 83.4 % the unsprayed eggs hatched within seven days. Piperine can, therefore, serve as an insecticide against bedbugs since it is effective on all developmental stages of the bugs.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/333 Synthesis of the development in gums and resins sub-sector in Kenya 2021-05-12T17:51:57+00:00 Muga M O EFJJournals@kalro.org Chikamai B N EFJJournals@kalro.org Oriwo V A EFJJournals@kalro.org Gachathi F N EFJJournals@kalro.org Mbiru S S EFJJournals@kalro.org Luvanda A M EFJJournals@kalro.org Wekesa L EFJJournals@kalro.org Wekesa C EFJJournals@kalro.org Omondi S EFJJournals@kalro.org Lelon J EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Gums and resins of commercial value in Kenya include: gum arabic; myrrh; hagar; and frankincense. This paper synthesizes what has been done and achievements made in the sub-sector since 1988 as well as future prospects. The aim was to inform private and public institutions interested in the gums and resins and policy makers. The key achievements in this sub-sector included taxonomic, ecological and chemical characterization of gums and resins, characterization of soil physico-chemical properties, establishment of genetic diversity and population structure of <em>Acacia senegal and</em> piloting of plantation development of <em>A. senegal. Other achievements were in</em> resource assessment and mapping, market chain analysis, capacity building of stakeholders and feasibility studies on the potential for commercialization of the processing of the products. The potential annual production is 16,291 t and&nbsp; 10,134 t for gum Arabic and resins, respectively, with main markets in Europe (gum Arabic) and Asia (gum resins).&nbsp; Kenya’s exports are about 59 t and 2446 t for gum Arabic and resins, respectively. Incapacity to bulk enough quantities mainly collected from the wild and lack of reliable suppliers humber export. The government prepared the gums and resins regulations which was&nbsp; awaiting gazettement at the time of this review. From the synthesis, it is concluded that the developments made in the sub-sector have not translated into volumes marketed. More efforts therefore are necessary to stimulate and enhance volumes collected and marketed.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/332 Defects in Plantation Soft Wood in Kenya: Causes, Extent and distribution 2021-05-12T17:55:59+00:00 Muthike G EFJJournals@kalro.org Karega S EFJJournals@kalro.org Githiomi J EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>This paper reports on the magnitude of defects in <em>Cupressus lusitanica</em> and their distribution. The study analysed data collected from all forest regions where defects were identified. Results indicated that defects in sawn timber were reported in most <em>Cupressus lusitanica</em> (Cypress) plantations, ranging between 23 and 37%.&nbsp; On the average, over 91 % of all the defects observed were a combination of heart rot and <em>oemida</em> <em>gahani, </em>a common pest in Cypress wood. Peculiar cases (0.4%) involving termite attack on standing trees was observed in western region. The magnitude of the defects significantly differed among different regions. Much of the damage was attributed to monkeys, particularly in Mau and central Kenya, while in Mt. Kenya and Aberdare, damage to trees were associated with buffaloes and elephants. The age of the trees had a significant influence on the magnitude of defects even within the same region. The study recommended&nbsp; need to develop strategies to reduce the primary causes of defects and increase the quality of raw materials available for the wood industry. Further, there is need to improve silvicultural treatment and harvest trees at optimum rotation age to avoid extended damage of the wood in case there is initial attack causing any of the defects. The study further recommends diversification of species and introduction of bamboo as an industrial material particularly in high altitude areas.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/328 The Potential of casuarina equisetifolia and melia volkensii tree species in improving soil fertility in Kwale and Kilifi Counties, Kenya 2021-05-12T18:02:09+00:00 Mwadalu Riziki EFJJournals@kalro.org Mary Gathara EFJJournals@kalro.org Muturi Gabriel EFJJournals@kalro.org Musingo T.E Mbuvi EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Low soil fertility is a major biophysical root-cause of declining per capita land productivity in Kenya. In most parts of the country, soils are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and in some cases potassium. Trees are important in soil fertility enhancement as they offer an excellent opportunity for farmers to meet nutrient demand in agricultural systems.&nbsp; The aim of the study was to determine the potential of <em>Casuarina equisetifolia</em> and <em>Melia volkensii</em> tree species on soil fertility improvement in Kwale and Kilifi Counties, Kenya. The experiment was established on-farm in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments: Casuarina, Melia and control with eight replicates arranged in 20 x 20 m tree plots. Soil samples were obtained in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 from depths of 0 to 20 cm, 20 to 40 cm and 40 to 60 cm and analyzed for soil pH, Electro Conductivity; soil Carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K), Data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using R version 4.0.2 for windows. Results indicated that total N and P were higher in <em>C. equisetifolia</em> and <em>M. volkensii</em> plots compared to the control treatment; and total Carbon was higher in M. volkensii treatment. There was a gradual decline soil C across the assessment period which could be attributed to higher decomposition rates at the study sites.&nbsp; There was also a positive relationship between soil pH and soil P (r<sup>2</sup>=0.128, 0.345, 0.327 for 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively). The results indicated that <em>C. equisetifolia</em> and <em>M. volkensii</em> slightly enhanced soil fertility through increased N and P, which can be attributed to nitrogen fixation by <em>C. equisetifolia</em> through Frankia bacteria and nutrient recycling by <em>M. volkensii</em>. The findings from this study can be by researchers and extension officers for advising farmers engaged in <em>C. equisetifolia</em> and <em>M. volkensii</em> farming and for promotion of agroforestry using these tree species.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/324 Evidence of genetic diversity and taxonomic differentiation among Acacia Senegal populations are varieties in Kenya on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA molecular markers 2021-05-12T18:08:30+00:00 Omondi F Stephen EFJJournals@kalro.org <p><em>Acacia senegal </em>is a multipurpose tree species that forms an essential component of many farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa where it is commercially exploited for gum arabic production. However, the species is yet to be put to optimal production in some countries due to inadequate information on its population genetics and taxonomic delimitation. This study reports the use of 13 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to determine genetic diversity and taxonomic relationships among 12 natural populations of <em>A. senegal</em> in Kenya. High genetic diversity was found for all populations. Mean gene diversity (He) for all populations was at 0.288 with effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) of 1.496. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed most genetic variations residing within (60%) rather than among populations. However, significant differentiation was detected among populations (<strong>ɸ</strong>st = 0.130; <em>P </em>&lt; 0.001). Cluster analysis based on similarity coefficient delimited three main groups corresponding to the three putative varieties of <em>A. senegal</em> namely <em>senegal, kerensis</em> and <em>leiorhachis</em>. The RAPD technology suggested high genetic</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/319 Status and growth determinants of non-timber forest products firms in Kenya 2021-05-12T18:13:43+00:00 Wekesa L EFJJournals@kalro.org Maalu J EFJJournals@kalro.org Gathungu J EFJJournals@kalro.org Wainaina G EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>The nature and state of non-timber forest products small and medium enterprises and what drives their growth in Kenya is not fully understood. Studies done have not adequately described the firms and demonstrated what influence their growth. Thus, this study performed descriptive and inferential statistical analyses to characterize and establish growth determinants of the firms. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey with questionnaire administered to entrepreneurs of 314 firms dealing with non-timber forest products selected using stratified random sampling methods from nine representative counties of Kenya. Factors assessed included characteristics of: the firm (age, products handled, size and legal status); and entrepreneurs/ owners (age, gender, education, experience, managerial and social skills).&nbsp; Frequency counts and percent&nbsp; were used in characterizing respondent firms whereas regression analysis was applied to establish growth determinants. It was observed that most firms were relatively new in operation, small in size with less than 10 employees, operated as sole proprietorship ventures and dealt with fruit based products. Most entrepreneurs were well educated young adults but had no requisite managerial and social skills, and industry experience. Nature of products and legal status (firm characteristics), and entrepreneur’s age and education (entrepreneur characteristics) influenced firm growth. It was concluded that entrepreneurship in non-timber forest products was in nascent stages of growth run with entrepreneurs without requisite qualifications necessary for creating competitiveness and growth of the industry. There was need, therefore for the firms to enhance their capacities through appropriate staff recruitment and/or training. Additionally, firm registration especially incorporating partnerships and limited companies be encouraged and supported.</p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/470 From the wild to markets and farmlands: Plant species in Biotrade 2021-05-12T18:20:57+00:00 Lusweti A EFJJournals@kalro.org Khayota B EFJJournals@kalro.org Masiga A EFJJournals@kalro.org Kyalo S EFJJournals@kalro.org Otieno J EFJJournals@kalro.org Mwangombe J EFJJournals@kalro.org Gravendeel B EFJJournals@kalro.org <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 308.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01027);">Wild collection of plant products mainly served </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 330.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02049);">subsistence needs but is now increasingly </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 351.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01042);">becoming an income generating activity. The needs </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 373.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01253);">include food, gums, tubers, fibers, materials for </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 395.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01622);">construction and herbal medicine among others. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 416.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.963388);">This niche market, part of biotrade in Kenya and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 438.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.964094);">is sometimes viewed as crime against wild plants </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 460.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989135);">because it is undocumented, largely unregulated and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 481.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989471);">economically unaccounted for. Market surveys were </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 503.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.997387);">carried out in towns in 8 Kenyan counties served by </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 525.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00282);">ports of entry/exit, bordering Uganda and Tanzania. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 546.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.957596);">Plant species in trade, products, volumes, sources, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 568.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.979165);">market players and associated challenges were </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 590.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.958174);">documented. The results indicate widespread trade </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 611.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00614);">in plants locally, regionally or internationally. More </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 633.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0206);">than 100 flowering plant species were documented </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 655.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.98228);">in trade in Kenyan markets, mainly wild-sourced </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 676.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03104);">for various uses. Most are sourced from forest </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 698.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977901);">reserves, communal land and small holder farms. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 720.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984962);">This trade is dominated by the male gender, p-value: </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 741.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987712);">0.000128 and product knowledge derives heavily </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 763.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.98527);">from indigenous knowledge. The average number of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 785.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01054);">species per stall was 28 species, with a mode of 10. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 806.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0091);">The value of the K-S test statistic (D) is .32207 and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 828.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.971432);">as it is &lt; .00001, this data is not normally distributed. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 850.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00628);">Skewness: 2.525802 and Kurtosis: 6.846425 values </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 871.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984155);">indicate preference of certain species over others </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 893.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999131);">and that some species are collected and traded more </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 915.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00338);">frequently compared to others. Some 22 species </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 936.976px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999167);">frequently in trade, were identified, profiled and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 958.642px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.975989);">prioritized for conservation. Strategies are needed </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 980.309px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01231);">to sustain supply of the species in trade, hence </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 1001.98px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.968655);">domestication, farm forestry and restoration on </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 1023.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00048);">communal land and natural forests are proposed.</span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/320 Anthropogenic influences on species composition and diversity dryland forest fragments Kitui, Eastern Kenya 2021-05-12T18:24:45+00:00 Musau J M EFJJournals@kalro.org Mugo M J EFJJournals@kalro.org <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 262.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.978734);">Increase in human population has devastating effects </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 284.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989791);">on many dryland forest fragments in Eastern Kenya. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 306.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989637);">The objectives of this paper are to determine (</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 363.993px; top: 306.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">i</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 368.623px; top: 306.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.970609);">) key </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 327.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.947912);">human activities in Kitui dryland forest fragments, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 349.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">(</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 65.5502px; top: 349.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0018);">ii</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 74.8112px; top: 349.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983803);">) tree species composition and (iii) impact of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 371.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.955801);">human activities on tree species composition and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 392.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.935698);">diversity. Two belt transect of 20 m wide and 500 </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 414.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">m</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 72.9638px; top: 414.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00943);"> long that employed use of nested sample plots of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 436.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.918048);">20 m ×20 m, sub-plots of 10 m ×10 m and micro-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 457.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.919847);">plots of 2 m ×5 m were established in each forest. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 479.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.94484);">Human activities occurred in both forests but with </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 501.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.985752);">high frequency (</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 176.75px; top: 501.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">P</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 186.93px; top: 501.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.985196);">&lt;0.05) in Museve. Introduction </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 522.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99412);">of exotic species boosted species composition </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 544.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992889);">in Museve forest recording 68 species compared </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 566.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983292);">to Mutuluni with 57 species. However, it altered </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 587.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02643);">species dominances in Museve with </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 331.692px; top: 587.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00032);">Eucalyptus </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 609.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03692);">saligna </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 116.574px; top: 609.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983171);">(SIV = 16.77%)</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 229.998px; top: 609.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1);">, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 241.658px; top: 609.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.98106);">an exotic species being </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 631.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.956976);">most dominant and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 198.18px; top: 631.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.970343);">reduced species similarity (JI</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 399.267px; top: 642.069px; font-size: 9.71667px; font-family: serif;">A</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 652.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01252);">= 0.37) across the two forests. Tree cutting reduced </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 674.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">(</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 65.5502px; top: 674.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">P</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 75.7308px; top: 674.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.950817);">&lt;0.05) species richness and diversity in Museve </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 696.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02308);">which recorded lower</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 217.158px; top: 696.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02908);"> Shannon Diversity Index</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">(</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 65.5502px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06873);">H’=</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 94.3832px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.956129);">1.46) compared to</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.16px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00047);">Mutuluni</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 291.667px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">(</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 297.217px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1);">H’</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 314.803px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00011);">=1.50</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 353.369px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">)</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 358.919px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04);">. Thus, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 739.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.95297);">this study concludes that human activities affected </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 761.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.986692);">species composition in both forests with Museve </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 782.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988647);">forest most disturbed. It thus </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 253.017px; top: 782.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994411);">recommends improved </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 804.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00825);">conservation measures for both forest reserves with </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 826.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.955855);">most attention on Museve and further research on </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 847.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03429);">consequences of altering species dominance by </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 869.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01483);">Eucalyptus saligna </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 191.47px; top: 869.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0005);">in Museve forest.</span></p> 2021-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/469 Priority non-wood forest products in Cherang’any hills Ecosystem 2021-05-12T18:27:03+00:00 Obonyo C EFJJournals@kalro.org Muga M EFJJournals@kalro.org Kiprop J EFJJournals@kalro.org Othim R EFJJournals@kalro.org Oriwo V EFJJournals@kalro.org Ingutia C EFJJournals@kalro.org Bor N EFJJournals@kalro.org <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 262.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02019);">Cherang’any forest is one of Kenya’s water </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 284.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00424);">towers that the Kenya’s Water Tower Protection </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 306.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02797);">and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 327.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993982);">(WaTER) programme aims at raising community </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 349.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03022);">appreciation of natural forest areas through the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 371.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992387);">promotion of sustainable utilization of non-wood </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 392.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977055);">forest products (NWFPs) from the forest. This is </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 414.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.986702);">however hindered by very scanty information on </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 436.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.964907);">NWFPs in Ecosystem. In order to bridge the gap, the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 457.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989801);">programme conducted a baseline survey of key non-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 479.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.962307);">wood forest products (NWFPs) of socio-economic </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 501.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993637);">importance in Cherang’anyforest ecosystem</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 401.581px; top: 501.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1);">. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 522.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977961);">The survey was done by administrating semi-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 544.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01004);">structured questionnaires on 266 randomly selected </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 566.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.970006);">respondents and conducting focused group and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 587.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.964995);">key-informant interviews. The data was analysed </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 609.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994169);">for descriptive statistics using SPSS. The survey </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 631.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977076);">revealed that: 98% of the respondents collected, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 652.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02629);">utilized or sold NWFPs to neighbours, the NWFPs </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 674.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992441);">that were collected in large quantities included roots </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 696.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.957587);">and tubers, indigenous fruits, fodder andgums and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 717.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.979706);">saps (annual per capita collection ranged between 19 </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 739.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984074);">– 80 Kg). Households earned up to KES 66,000 and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 761.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.015);">KES 50,000 from sales of honey and other NWFPs </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 782.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02689);">respectively in 2016. It can therefore be concluded </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 804.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08659);">that NWFPs play a significant role in the day to </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 826.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.9465);">day livelihoods of the communities living adjacent </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 847.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.978997);">to Cherang’anyecosystem and have a potential </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 869.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.971848);">of reducing poverty level. The earning from the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 891.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01433);">NWFPs and therefore appreciation of the forest </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 912.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00182);">by the community can be enhanced through the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 934.64px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.960246);">sustainable commercialization of fodder, roots and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 956.306px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.986593);">tubers, indigenous fruits, gums and saps, vegetables, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 977.973px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);">medicine, and honey. </span></p> 2019-08-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/301 The Value of Forest Ecosystem Services of Mau Compalex, Cherangang and Mt. Elgon, Kenya 2021-05-12T18:29:53+00:00 Langat D EFJJournals@kalro.org Cheboiwo J EFJJournals@kalro.org Okoth S EFJJournals@kalro.org Kiprop J EFJJournals@kalro.org Kisiwa A EFJJournals@kalro.org Guzha A EFJJournals@kalro.org Smith N EFJJournals@kalro.org DeMeo T EFJJournals@kalro.org Kagombe J EFJJournals@kalro.org Gatama S EFJJournals@kalro.org <p>Ecosystem services from Kenya’s forests have remained largely unmeasured and undervalued. Consequently, the benefits they provide are ignored in most forest management investment decisions. This has led to degradation and conversion of these forest ecosytems to alternative uses. This study was undertaken to value ecosystem services provided by the Mau, Cherangany hills and Mt. Elgon forest ecosystems. Primary data was collected from 1206 households and 148 forest product industry players using structured and semi- structured interviews. Secondary information was obtained from service providers,&nbsp; other&nbsp; published/ unpublished sources and from discussions with experts. Market <em>prices, Contingent valuation, Cost-based and Benefit Transfer (BT) techniques were applied in estimating total economic values.</em> Total Economic Value of the three ecosystems is about KES 339 billion (US$ 3.4 billion) per annum. Mau, Cherangany and Mt. Elgon ecosystems contributedKES 184 billion (US$ 1.84 billion), KES 42 billion (US$ 420million) and KES 115 billlion (US$1.15billion) respectively. In the three water towers, regulating services contributed the bulk of Total Economic Value (TEV) with 84 % (Mau), 66 % (Cherangany) and 93 %&nbsp; 9Mt Kenya) underscoring the importance of indirect use values in forest ecosystems. Mau forest ecosystem had the highest regulation value of KES 162 billion followed by Mt. Elgon with KES 109 billion per annum and Cherangany at KES 30.6 billion per annum. Provisioning services contributed 10%, 23% and 4 % of TEV for Mau, Cherangany and Mt. Elgon respectively. The TEV estimate from this study is very conservative because it did not encompass of all ecosystem service values. However, this study has provided vital that can assist conservation and management of the three water towers for enhanced livelihood and flow of ecosystem services.</p> <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60px; top: 895.27px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00042);">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##