Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Nyandarua County, Kenya

  • J. Wanjama Department of Medical Microbiology / Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, University of Nairobi
  • G.O. Aboge Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi
  • C. Muneri Department of Veterinary Surgery, Theriogenology and Medicine, Egerton University
  • M. Nanyingi Department of Community and Global Health, University of Nairobi


Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne, viral zoonosis that causes significant economic and public health impacts in ruminant animals and humans. It is primarily transmitted to animals through bites from infected Aedes spp., and to humans through contact with infected animals. It is among the top five priority zoonotic diseases in Kenya. The current study was aimed at determining Rift Valley fever virus seroprevalence in cattle, sheep, and goats in Nyandarua County. A cross-sectional and purposive sampling techniques was adopted in this study. A total of 301 RVF suspect animals were sampled from 16 villages in Olkalou, Kipipiri, and Wanjohi sub-counties. The RVFV IgG and IgM antibodies were detected using multispecies indirect competitive and capture ELISA respectively. Mixed logistic regression determined the association between RVFV seropositivity, sex, age, species, exposure, and village. A total of 164 cattle, 118 sheep, and 19 goats were sampled, and the overall IgG seroprevalence was 31.23% (95% [CI 26.26 - 36.67]). Cattle, sheep, and goats had seroprevalence of 49.39% (81/164) (95% [CI 41.74 - 57.04]), 9.32% (11/118) (95% [CI 4.08 - 14.57]), and 10.53% (2/19) (95% [CI 0.00 – 24.33]) respectively. The prevalence of IgM on all positive IgG was 3.19% (3/94) (95 [CI 0.00 – 6.74]) in cattle. The overall IgG seroprevalence for all-male species was 6.06% (2/33) (95% [CI 0.00 – 14.20]) and all-females 34.33% (92/268) (95% CI 28.64 – 40.01). High seroprevalence and reported cases of abortions suggest subclinical circulation of RVFV in livestock in Nyandarua. These findings provide evidence of RVF disease status. Prevention and control through animal and human surveillance, timely vaccination, and vector control are required.

How to Cite
Wanjama, J., Aboge, G., Muneri, C., & Nanyingi, M. (2022). Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Nyandarua County, Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 86(1-2), 11. Retrieved from