Diversity of cassava mosaic disease causal viruses in Kenya

  • M. N. Were Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences (SONAS)
  • M. Ndong’a Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences (SONAS)
  • V. Ogema Department of Agriculture and Land Use Management (ALUM), School of Agriculture, Veterinary Science and Technology (SAVET) Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
  • A. S. Mabele Department of Agriculture and Land Use Management (ALUM), School of Agriculture, Veterinary Science and Technology (SAVET) Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
  • H. K. Were Department of Agriculture and Land Use Management (ALUM), School of Agriculture, Veterinary Science and Technology (SAVET) Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology

Abstract

Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) caused by Cassava Mosaic Begomoviruses (CMBs) causes poor Cassava (Mannihot esculenta Crantz.) production in Kenya. Lack of genomic characterization of CMBs hampers control and management of the disease. This study was conducted to determine the diversity and distribution of begomoviruses causing CMD in Kenya. A survey of CMD was conducted in the counties of Bungoma, Busia, Siaya, Kakamega, Kilifi, Kwale, Machakos and Kisii. The DNA was extracted from 60 leaf samples using Cetyltrimethlammonium bromide protocol. Specific primers targeting all EACMV and ACMV viruses were then used to amplify DNA fragments of CMD pathogens. PCR products were prepared and sequenced using Sanger sequencing platform. The sequences were assembled BLAST searched against NCBI database using BLASTn. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on automatic Neighbor Joining Tree and Maximum Likelihood method of nucleotides substitution by Kimura 2 Parameter with Invariant Plus Gamma. ACMV isolates from Busia and Kakamega
clustered together in group I while the rest clustered in group II. They were more similar to each other and to Ugandan isolate implying common ancestry than with the other isolate from Kisii. The EACMV isolate from Kisii and a weed Leonotis leonarus from Bungoma clustered together with EACMV-UG isolate from Bungoma western Kenya while another was quite similar to an EACMV-Ke isolate from Makueni eastern Kenya. An isolate from Kisumu County was very similar to another isolate from Non-cassava plant Makhamia zanzibarica. These findings imply that the occurrence of CMD Begomoviruses in non-cassava plants may have a role in CMD epidemiology

Published
2022-06-03
How to Cite
Were, M. N., Ndong’a, M., Ogema, V., Mabele, A. S., & Were, H. K. (2022). Diversity of cassava mosaic disease causal viruses in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 85(1-4), 8. Retrieved from https://www.kalro.org/www.eaafj.or.ke/index.php/path/article/view/529