Agronomy is the science and technology of economical production of plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber and reclamation. Due to the continued growth of the global population and the consequent expanding need for study of food crops and agriculture in general the outlook for agronomy is important. Past agricultural research has created higher yielding crops, crops with better resistance to pests and plant pathogens, and more effective fertilizers and pesticides. Agronomists will be needed to balance increased agricultural output with protection and preservation of soil, water, and ecosystems and reduce use of harmful chemicals that cause damage to farms and the natural environment. Rice agronomy is therefore meant to improve productivity to maximize grain yield potential of a given variety under varied cultures. Yield potential depends largely on how well land preparation, crop establishment, best variety, nursery management, soil fertility, optimum operation and management, and optimum input use is done. The goal of all these is to secure a uniform plant population that can produce high grain yields. There are four major factors affecting number of panicles; the most important yield determining factor; such as good quality seed, varietal tillering ability, initial plant population and available N level at tillering. NERICA for example will require above 800 mm of rainfall during growth period at elevation 0 to 1700 m above sea level, pH of 4.5 – 7.0 and matures in 90 – 120 days.