Database of Predators, parasitoids and ant associates for scale insects in Kenya. read more

KALRO Scale Insects Collection (NARL) ver. 2022 read more

Database of KALRO Scale Insect Collection

This database Is intended as a research tool, to help researchers locate material for study. The Darwin Initiative project did not have enough time to allow study (and checking the identification) of every slide; however, Dr De Lotto was an expert so it is likely that most of the determinations are correct. Note that not all of the species in the collection were collected in Kenya. For an up-to-date checklist of species in Kenya, see the published checklist: read more

Pollination Research Protocols & Handbooks

Monitoring status and trends of pollinators

Over the last decade, pollinator populations have significantly declined worldwide a trend that is feared might lead to "pollination crisis". Furthermore, our efforts to conserve and manage pollinators have been hampered by lack of systematic monitoring program. A protocol for monitoring trends and status of pollinators has been developed by Dr. Gretchen LeBuhn, of San Franscisco State University, working in collaboration with Dr. Sam Droege of USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and Dr. Edward F. Connor of Florida State University. The protocol is scientifically robust and can detect up to a 7% decline in bee population within two years with only 100 sample sites. It is freely accessible to non-experts interested in large scale bee monitoring survey and can be adjusted to suit local conditions. Download Monitoring status and trends of pollinators where can this document be found... read more

Detecting and assessing pollination deficit in cropson of pollinator-friendly practices

A handbook for socio-economic evaluation of pollinator-friendly practices was developed by FAO and the International Institute of Economic Development (IIED), UK. It is a 5-step guide to help farmers evaluate the benefits, and costs of applying pollinator-friendly practices.. Download Handbook for socio-economic evaluation of pollinator-friendly practices... read more

Pollinators such as bees, butterflies, moths, bats, birds and many others move pollen grains from the male part (anthers) to the female part (stigma) of a flower leading to the formation of seeds and fruits. This process is called pollination. Inadequate receipt of pollen grains can lead to lower crop production, a phenomenon known as 'pollination deficit'. A protocol to detect and assess pollination deficit in cropping systems of the world was produced by FAO and INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), with inputs and guidance provided by more than 12 pollination scientist. The protocols provide the use with hypothesis to be tested and layout of experiments and allowing modifications for various cropping systems in developing countries. Download Protocol to detect and assess pollination deficit in crops: a handbook for its use.. read more

Crops, Browse and Pollinators In Africa:  An Initial Stocktaking

description:  Specific knowledge on pollinator dependence and types is important for agriculture and biodiversity (including agro-biodiversity) conservation. With this objective, researchers in Ghana, Kenya and South Africa were supported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation in 2003 to undertake an initial assessment of pollination needs and gaps in knowledge of the key pollinators of a few crops, and indigenous plants used by people or livestock (Acacia and Indigofera), in their respective countries. This assessment included both literature reviews and field observation; and is on-going. The long-term aim of assessments is to identify the key pollinators and prioritize vulnerable pollination systems, in particular those in which explicit pollinator management practices can have the most beneficial impacts. Read More

African Pollinator Initiative Plan of Action

Informed by an increasing world-wide recognition that pollinators play a key role in ecosystem health, both in farmers¹ fields and in wild landscapes, the African Pollinator Initiative was formulted by an Africa-wide group of people interested and committed to protecting, understanding and promoting the essential process of pollination for sustainable livelihoods and the conservation of biological diversity in Africa. This document outlines the steps which the API believes must be taken to secure the future of pollinators in Africa, for the benefit of this and future generations. The inaugural meeting of the initiative in February 2002 identified three components of an action plan, which has been further elaborated through the development of this Action Plan. These three components: public awareness, education and mainstreaming; conservation and restoration, and capacity building, have been designed to interact and reinforce each other, and to be applicable at both regional and national levels....  read more

Aspects determining the risk of pesticides to wild bees: risk profiles for focal crops on three continents
Globally, agricultural production systems are under pressure to meet multiple challenges: to sustain or increase production from the same area of land and reduce negative impacts on the environment amid uncertainties resulting from climate change.... read more

Protecting pollinators from pesticides – Urgent need for action

Author: FAO
Pollinators are essential for fruit, vegetable, oilseed and forage production, as well as for the production of seed for many root and fibre crops. In addition to being essential to food security and quality, pollinators contribute to the production of medicines, biofuels (e.g. canola and palm oil), fibres (e.g. cotton and linen) and construction materials such as timber. Livelihoods based on beekeeping and honey hunting are embedded in many rural economies. The large importance of pollinators, for both wild and cultivated plants, means they are fundamental to maintain ecosystem services and uphold global biodiversity.

Visual manual on good beekeeping practices for small-scale beekeepers in Africa

This manual is a visual, practical document on good beekeeping practices for sustainable small-scale beekeepers in Africa. It has been designed to serve as a beekeeping training tool and is a concise, practical reference document. The manual opens with an illustrated story of the damaging effect of certain practices adopted when collecting wild honey (honey hunting) and aims to spark interest among readers on how to harvest honey more sustainably. The second section presents the reader with the main beekeeping equipment and explains how the tools can be used to keep healthy bees and harvest quality honey. It ends with an overview of good beekeeping practices that will help the beekeeper produce good honey in a sustainable manner.

Good beekeeping practices for sustainable apiculture

Bees provide a critical link in the maintenance of ecosystems, pollination. They play a major role in maintaining biodiversity, ensuring the survival of many plants, enhancing forest regeneration, providing sustainability and adaptation to climate change and improving the quality and quantity of agricultural production systems. In fact, close to 75 percent of the world’s crops that produce fruits and seeds for human consumption depend, at least in part, on pollinators for sustained production, yield and quality. Beekeeping, also called apiculture, refers to all activities concerned with the practical management of social bee species.

Responsible use of antimicrobials in beekeeping

These guidelines focus on responsible use of antimicrobials in sustainable apiculture. Following a one-health approach, they aim to protect not only honey bees, but even human health (e.g. reducing the risks of residues in hive products and preventing development of antimicrobial resistance) and the environment. The best way to reach this goal is to prevent and to guarantee the early detection of clinical cases of the main honey bee diseases through the application of good beekeeping practices and biosecurity measures.