Papers Presented by KALRO Kiboko Scientists at Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium

Kirwa E. C, Ikawa R.A., Mutegi S.M and Mnene W.N. 2017. Effect of induced water stress on ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris grass species and implication for drought tolerance. In proceedings Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) 2017 Scientific Symposium, held on 5th – 7th April at Starbucks Hotel and Restaurant Eldoret, Kenya.

 

Effect of induced water stress on ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris grass species and implication for drought tolerance

Kirwa E. C, Ikawa R.A., Mutegi S.M and Mnene W.N

Abstract

A study was done to evaluate the effect of induced water stress to ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris grass species. A total of seven ecotypes collected from collected selected areas in Arid and Semi - Arid land s (ASALs) of Kenya were planted in a green house. Effect of water stress was varied among the ecotypes. Extreme stress was observed with KBK2 ecotype where plant height change, observed plant appearance score and relative leaf water content was significantly affected by water withdrawal. Leaf proline content was highest in water stressed than well - watered plants. Leaf proline levels were significantly affected by water stress in KBK2 and KBK1 ecotypes. In overall, the results indicated that KBK2 ecotype is significantly affected by water stress implying low drought tolerance than the rest

 

 

S G Kuria and J Lesuper. 2017. Does Mineral Supplementation Affect Quality of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk? The Case of North Eastern Region of Kenya. In proceedings Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) 2017 Scientific Symposium, held on 5th – 7th April at Starbucks Hotel and Restaurant Eldoret, Kenya.

 

Does MineralSupplementation Affect Quality of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk? The Caseof North Eastern Region of Kenya

S G Kuria and J Lesuper

Abstract

A study was carried out in Bangali - Tana River County and Bute - Wajir County Kenya, to assess effect of mineral supplementation on the level of iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin A in camel milk. Design of the experiment was Balanced Randomized Complete Block (BRCBD) with factorial arrangement of the treatments. The two site s represented blocks. Treatments were at three levels i.e. {(Chumvi Kuria – CK, a mineral formulation for camels containing calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt), (Chumvi Kuria+selenium - CK+Se, a variant of CK containing selenium) and, the control} . Each camel was individually fed 200g/day of either CK or CK+Se every morning over a period of 90 days with a 7 - days acclimatization period at the beginning. Milk samples for mineral analysis were taken at beginning of the experiment and thereafter once at end of every month and delivered to laboratory where iron, zinc and selenium were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) while vitamin A was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Two way analysis of variance was used to analyse effect of treatments on iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin A while mean separation was done using least significant difference (LSD). The treatments did not significantly influence the level of iron in the milk from one month to the other although the CK+Se exhibited higher influence than CK. There was a general downward trend for zinc thought to be a result of negative interaction with selenium observed to increase over time with supplementation. The mean monthly difference for zinc was not significant at 0.05 level. Selenium concentration in the milk was positively influenced by supplementation although the treatment differences were not significant at 0.05 level. A downward trend for vitamin A was observed. However, the mean monthly difference was not significant at the .05 level. The study concluded that supplementation with both CK and CK+Se positively or negatively influenced concentration of the mineral elements and also vitamin A with the overall concentration remaining within the acceptable level for quality camel milk.

Key words:Mineral analysis, Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin A, Human health

 

Katiku PN, Keya GA, Nginyi J and Manyeki JK. 2017. Upgrading the mutton value chain: A pilot community initiative in the ASALs of Narok, Kenya. In proceedings Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) 2017 Scientific Symposium, held on 5th – 7th April at Starbucks Hotel and Restaurant Eldoret, Kenya. 

 

Upgrading the mutton value chain: A pilot community initiative in the ASALs of Narok, Kenya

Katiku PN, Keya GA, Nginyi J and Manyeki JK

Abstract

A pilot research to business (R2B) model was developed and tested in Narok County with the objective of upgrading the mutton sheep value chain in the region. The model involved on-farm communal feedlot finishing of Dorper weaner lambs donated by and belonging to a local community based organization (CBO). One hundred and thirty two, four months old weaner lambs were fattened for 3 months and collectively marketed under a public auction. The lambs attained an average market weight of 30 kilograms. Farmers were trained on strategic deworming as means to control helminths and improve the sheep productivity. Profitability analysis showed positive Net Present Value (NPV), Gross Margins (GM) and a Cost Benefit Ration (CBR). This means that the costs invested in the sheep lamb fattening scheme are recovered and high benefits realized.  The project working with the CBO, managed to pioneer the sale of finished sheep lambs on live weight basis and at higher prices through public auction forum which was a new experience in the area. The fattening experiment observed that it was possible to finish and market sheep weaner lambs for a period of 3 months thus reducing the market age from the normal 2-3 years to about 8 months.

Key words:Sheep- Finishing Narok Kenya.

 

 

Bii J. C, Ilatsia E.D, Korir B. K, Katiku P.K, Mnene W. N, Kibet P.F.K, Keya G.A. 2017. Assessment of Growth Rate, Milk yield and Nutrition of Sahiwal and Their Crosses with Small East African Zebu Cattle in Magadi, Kajiado County, Kenya. In proceedings Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) 2017 Scientific Symposium, held on 5th – 7th April at Starbucks Hotel and Restaurant Eldoret, Kenya.

 

Assessment of Growth Rate, Milk yield and Nutrition of Sahiwal and Their Crosses with Small East African Zebu Cattle in Magadi, Kajiado County, Kenya

Bii J. C, Ilatsia E.D, Korir B. K, Katiku P.K, Mnene W. N, Kibet P.F.K, Keya G.A

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the suitability of Sahiwal and their crosses with Small East African Zebu (SEAZ) in Magadi since this area is the driest in Kajiado County. Specifically the study aimed at determining farmers’ perception on the suitability of Sahiwal and their crosses with SEAZ, determining the performance of Sahiwal and their crosses with SEAZ and come up with recommendation domains on use of Sahiwal in upgrading SEAZ in Kajiado and future research areas. The project was designed to purposely target farmers owning SEAZ, Sahiwal and crosses of Sahiwal and SEAZ cattle. A questionnaire was used to collect data and information which included the following parameters; Lactation length, Daily milk yield, Age at weaning, Market age, feed supplementation strategies, ranking of breed preference and Live-weight. The data collected was analysed to compare means of the production parameters of the different breeds. The results showed that Sahiwal was ranked number one breed of preference because of high milk yield and high growth rate. The distance to agro-vet shops where mineral supplements could be obtained was reported to be 26km which was too long for most of the pastoralists.

Key words:Sahiwal, Small East African Zebu, Arid areas, Growth rate, Milk yield, Nutrition.

 

 

Katiku P N, Manyeki JK, Nginyi JM, Kimitei RK, Amboga SS, Ogillo BP, Njau P, Mahagayu  CM, Mnene WN, Keya GA, Kibet PF. 2015. The status of smallholder sheep production in selected Arid and Semi-arid Areas of Narok County, Kenya.Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya (APSK) scientific symposium in April 21-23, 2015 at Sarova Whitesands Beach Resort & Spa, Mombasa.

 

The status of smallholder sheep production in selected Arid and Semi-arid Areas of Narok County

Katiku P N, Manyeki JK, Nginyi JM, Kimitei RK, Amboga SS, Ogillo BP, Njau P, Mahagayu  CM, Mnene WN, Keya GA, Kibet PF

Abstract

Sheep is a major component of the pastoral livestock production system and contributes to gross national  product  through  meat,  wool  and  skin  exports,  to  food  production  by  converting roughages into meat and to rural employment. There is an increasing demand for mutton for domestic and export meat market. A study was conducted in the pastoral smallholder sheep production sites of Olulunga and Nturumeti, Narok County. A purposive sample of 32 households, five key informant interviewees and four focused group discussions were conducted in November of 2014 to characterise smallholder sheep production and identify gaps in various segments of the value chain in the county. The results indicated that sheep are mainly owned and reared by male gender (81%) on average 7.5 hectares of land. Ma in sheep breeds; Red Maasai, Dorper, Merino and crossbreds were kept but preferred breeds were Dorper, Red Maasai and their crosses. The sheep main source of feed was natural grazing (100% of respondents) with shortages being experienced in the dry season by all. Only 20% of respondents conserved surplus forage. The major feed shortage copping strategy was by practicing pastoralism and use of purchased forages. Major challenge were sheep diseases and shortage of feed during the dry spell. There was moderate (48%) usage of wheat straw and other crop residues even though most of the households grew wheat, maize and other pulses. Majority of the households, 75%, were not aware of sheep innovations and those aware, majority, 50%, learnt from fellow farmers and 25% from non-governmental organization (NGO). The feeding regime was unimproved pasture grazing whose sustainability is questionable under the current threat of climate change. The results indicate that the indigenous breed of sheep, Red Maasai, is still popular in the county. The research, extension as well as the marketing segments of the chain were relatively poorly involved resulting into inefficiencies. Indeed, the infusion of modern production innovations, technology and current marketing strategies is key in improvement of the sheep value chain.

Key words:ASAL, smallholder, sheep, Narok