End of ASAL-APRP Project Conference 2017
P.N. Katiku, G. Keya, J.M. Nginyi, J.K. Manyeki, C.M. Mahagayu, J.K. Kimutai , B.P. Ogillo, R.K. Kimitei, W.N. Mnene and P.F. Kibet. 2017. Feedlot Finishing of Lambs for the Market: Experiences of Nturumenti Farmers, Narok County, Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Feedlot Finishing of Lambs for the Market: Experiences of Nturumenti Farmers, Narok County, Kenya
P.N. Katiku, G. Keya, J.M. Nginyi, J.K. Manyeki, C.M. Mahagayu, J.K. Kimutai , B.P. Ogillo,R.K. Kimitei, W.N. Mnene and P.F. Kibet
A study was conducted in pastoral smallholder production site of Nturumeti, Narok County, Kenya to determine the success of onfarm feedlotting of sheep lambs for the market. In the researcher mineral- for a period of 99 days and offered for sale in a public auction at the end of the trial. The mean liveweight at start of trial was 24.82 (s.e. 0.52) kg and increased to 30.01(s.e 0.54) kg at end of trial. At the start of the experiment on 17.12.2015, there were 132 lambs. Six lambs died in the course of the trial from bloat, sheep pox, blue tongue and complications arising from basis at KES 130/kg. The remainder were disposed off within a week. The participating farmers to the farmer practice of fattening for a period of more than a year. Therefore, the project working live weight basis and through public auction forum which was a new experience in the area. The within three months and the prices realized were far much better than the prices obtained when similar lambs are sold on visual appraisal at farm gate. On-farm Sheep Finishing for Market Model is possible within a community based organized group of farmers and the viability of into as a source of income in Nturumenti, Narok County.
S G Kuria, J Lesuper 2017: Effect of Chumvi Kuria and Chumvi Kuria + Selenium Supplements on Performance of Camels and their Potential for Commercialization in Northern Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Effect of Chumvi Kuria and Chumvi Kuria + Selenium Supplements on Performance of Camels and their Potential for Commercialization in NorthernKenya
S G Kuria, J Lesuper
A study was conducted in Wajir and Tana River Counties of north eastern Kenya to evaluate performance of camels on two types of mineral supplements i.e. Chumvi Kuria (CK) and a variant containing selenium (CK+Se) and, determine their commercialization potential. Design of the experiment was Balanced Randomized Complete Block Design with factorial arrangement of treatments. Each camel was individually fed 200g/day of either CK or CK+Se every morning over a period of 90 days. Milk yield and live weight of calves were measured once every week using graduated jag and tape measure, respectively. The IBM SPSS statistics version 20 was used to analyse the data. In Wajir, camels on CK+Se and CK treatments produced 64% and 61% more (p<0.05) milk than controls, respectively. In Tana River, the CK+Se camels produced 9% and 15% more milk than the control and CK camels, respectively. Regarding calf growth in Wajir, the CK+Se calves were 19.1% and 4.3% heavier than CK and control calves, respectively. In Tana River, calves under CK+Se remained heavier than (p<0.05) those under CK and control by 26% study concluded that although CK+Se exhibited stronger positive effect on milk yield and calf.
E.O. Ouma, V.O. Wasonga, E.Y.A. Mohamed, and W.N. Mnene. 2017. Characterization of Hay and Grass Seed Value Chain in Makueni and Kajiado Counties, Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Characterization of Hay and Grass Seed Value Chain in Makueni and Kajiado Counties, Kenya
E.O. Ouma, V.O. Wasonga, E.Y.A. Mohamed, and W.N. Mnene
Fodder production has been adopted by communities living in the drylands of Kenya to address the problem of feed inadequacy and diversify their livelihoods. However, there is no adequate empirical evidence to guide development of fodder production and marketing. This study was conducted in Makueni and Kajiado Counties to characterize fodder value chain. The study areas were purposively selected based on their previous participation in the Agricultural Research Supports Program phase two (ARSP-II), initiated by Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO). The study conducted 38 key informant interviews, 11 focus group discussions and 131 household interviews. Qualitative and quantitative data analyses were done. Responses from the KIIs and FGDs were collated and used to characterize fodder value chain. Range reseeding was the most adopted technology with most farmers being small-scale producers having less than 10 acres of fodder farms. Small-holder producers, community based organizations, brokers and KALRO were the most important actors in the chain. Fodder markets were found to be bought seeds at low prices from producers and sold to NGOs at very high prices, a sign of low to services on seed quality and standardization and market information to enhance access to better prices both locally and regionally. A regulated and organized value chain is likely to attract private sector to invest in lacking services such as mechanized ploughing and harvesting.
S. Muraguri and E. Kirwa. 2017. Genetic Diversity of Cenchrus Ciliaris Collections in the Kenyan Arid and Semi-Arid Lands. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Genetic Diversity of Cenchrus Ciliaris Collections in the Kenyan Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
S. Muraguri and E. Kirwa
Inadequate forage availability in the Kenyan Arid and Semi-Arid lands (ASALs) is a major hindrance in livestock production. Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is an important range grass species that is commonly preferred by farmers for range rehabilitation. A study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity and population structure among buffel grass ecotypes from Kenyan ASALs using Start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) marker system. Six highly reproducible primers that generated 76 polymorphic loci were used. Nei’s gene diversity (H) values ranged between H=0.138 and 0.289 for all the Kenyan Cenchrus ciliaris populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) resulted in a high-level genetic variation within populations of 95% and a low variation between populations (5%), despite the apomictic nature of Buffel grass. Dendogram the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Different clades in the dendrogram included a mixture of one or two accessions from populations, an indication of possible intermixing of accessions from different eco-geographical sites. In reseeding and breeding work, wide random sampling should be undertaken in a particular population in order to capture the large diversity recorded within populations.
B. P. Ogillo, B. K. Kisambo, E.C. Kirwa, D.O. Kubasu, and W. N., Mnene. 2017. Performance of Rhodes Grass (Chloris Gayana) and Two Range Grass Ecotypes. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Performance of Rhodes Grass (Chloris Gayana) and Two Range Grass Ecotypes under Rain-Fed Rangeland Conditions in South-Eastern Kenya
B. P. Ogillo, B. K. Kisambo, E.C. Kirwa, D.O. Kubasu, and W. N., Mnene
A study was carried out at KALRO Kiboko to compare the performance of five Rhodes varieties (Boma, Katumani, Elmba, Ex-Tozi and Pokot) with two range grasses (Enteropogon macrostachyus and Chloris roxburghiana) under rain-fed for two successive rainy seasons. The study was an effort to make recommendations for appropriate range grass species. The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The parameters measured were plant density, cover, tiller density, plant height and, aboveground biomass. Plant and tiller density, plant height and aboveground biomass were significantly different between the Rhodes varieties and range grass ecotypes. However, percent cover was not significantly different between them. The two range grasses used in the experiment showed better performance in most of the attributes measured. C. roxburghiana had the highest biomass production at 4.6 t/ha, followed by E. macrostachyus at 3.4 t/ha. These two range grasses are recommended for pasture production in range areas of similar conditions to KALRO Kiboko under rain-fed conditions.
E. C. Kirwa, K. Ngugi, G. Chemining’wa and W. N. Mnene. 2017. Phenotypic Characterization of Ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris L. using Morphological Traits. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017(Abstract…)
Phenotypic Characterization of Ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris L. using Morphological Traits
E. C. Kirwa, K. Ngugi, G. Chemining’waand W. N. Mnene
Shortage of feed is one of the major challenges to livestock production in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya. Reseeding using indigenous grass species has been widely promoted as an option to address the challenge. The grass seeds used are harvested opportunistically from the natural habitats. Seeds from a grass species harvested from the wild are potentially variable due to environmental differences. Characterization of grass ecotypes provides information on their variations that can be used in development of varieties. A study was carried out to characterize eleven ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris at KALRO Kiboko research station. The ecotypes were collected from purposively selected sites in the country and planted in the field in five rows of 4 m long. Significant differences in morphological traits were observed among the ecotypes of C. ciliaris. Hierarchical Cluster analysis using plant height, stem thickness, leaf length and leaf width traits resulted in two clusters of robust and small sized ecotypes. When flowering traits, time to start flowering, time to full plot flowering and flowering period, were used two clusters of late flowering and early flowering groups were formed. All Kilifi ecotypes were grouped in early flowering types. This implies that there are early and late maturing ecotypes among the collection and late flowering types were robust while early maturing types were smaller in size. Effect of environment of collection could have influenced the plant size and maturity time of the ecotypes of C. ciliaris. The findings indicates that selection for maturity time is possible with C. ciliaris ecotypes.
P. L. Ndung’u, O. V. Wasonga, W. N. Mnene, O. K. Koech and A. M. Y. Mohamed. 2017. Local Knowledge on Uses, Availability Trends and Variations of Indigenous Grass Species in Southern Kenya Rangelands. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Local Knowledge on Uses, Availability Trends and Variations of Indigenous Grass Species in Southern Kenya Rangelands
P. L. Ndung’u, O. V. Wasonga, W. N. Mnene, O. K. Koech and A. M. Y. Mohamed
Local communities have in the past been invaluable sources of information pertaining their environment. This study sought to investigate local perceptions on uses, abundance and availability as well as variations of key indigenous grasses in Kajiado and Makueni Counties. The study found 29 and 12 grass species being mentioned in Kajiado and Makueni Counties, respectively with the main species being Digitaria macroblephara in Kajiado County and Eragrostis superba in Makueni County. Use of grasses as livestock forage was ranked as the most important by all respondents in the study area. The study reported both an increasing and decreasing trend in the availability and abundance of various indigenous grass species. The declining trend was mainly attributed to drought (97.5%), increasing human population (82%), and overgrazing (62.9%) while the increasing trend was attributed to the promotion of grass species for rehabilitation and improvement site as having ecotypes with different ecological requirements and difference preferences by both livestock and the communities. This warrants further studies to screen ecotypes for their biomass yield, nutritional quality and drought tolerance among other factors in order to determine their suitability for arid and semi-arid lands.
K.B. Kisambo, E.C. Kirwa, B.P. Ogillo, D.O Kubasu and P. Mweki. 2017. Range Pasture Seed Viability Trends and Factors affecting it for Selected Rangeland Grasses in the ASALs of Kenya
In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Range Pasture Seed Viability Trends and Factors Affecting it for Selected Rangeland Grasses in the ASALs of Kenya
K.B. Kisambo, E.C. Kirwa, B.P. Ogillo, D.O Kubasu and P. Mweki
Range pasture seed production for locally adapted species is a venture that is taking root in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) with efforts from different partners working with farmers with the goal of improving the livestock feed resource base. However, the main challenge has been producing and acquiring quality pasture seeds. The Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), has been engaged in pasture seed multiplication, capacity building initiatives and offering seed quality testing services for farmers and other organizations. In the past 8 years, work has been done on production and quality testing of seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris roxburghiana, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Eragrostis superba, Chloris gayana var. extozi, Chloris gayana var. boma and Digitaria macroblephara. Seeds for these grasses harvested from the centre plots and from farmers were tested for viability at the Kiboko laboratory using standard International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) procedures. The results generally indicated low viability for most of the species with C. roxburghiana, an important adapted species having a germination percent of 29.74+2.45. Only E. macrostachyus had a germination capacity of 86.55+2.30%. Formalization of the range pasture seed market will go a long way in enhancing research, production and a wider understanding the grasses. Further development and storage in order to improve their viability is recommended.
J. K. Manyeki, J.J. Kimutai, B. Kidake, E.C. Kirwa, W. N. Mnene and S. G Kuria. 2017. Cost Benefit Analysis of Natural Pasture Reseeding in Southern Rangelands of Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Cost Benefit Analysis of Natural Pasture Reseeding in Southern Rangelands of Kenya.
J. K. Manyeki, J.J. Kimutai, B. Kidake, E.C. Kirwa, W. N. Mnene and S. G Kuria
Due to environmental, economic and social-cultural factors constraining livestock keepers in ASALs of Kenya, the economic potential of any technological intervention is very important for farmers’ decision making process. This study aimed at evaluating the costs and benefits of natural pasture reseeding technology in the southern rangelands of Makueni County using four recommended range grass species (African foxtail, Horsetail, Bush rye and Maasai Love). Allometric technique was adopted to estimate species-specific biomass. Cost benefit analysis was performed by estimating gross margin, cost-benefit ratio and break even yields and prices of natural pasture reseeding technology. The result indicates that the four grass species gave a high percentage gross profit margin and a high cost benefit ratio, an indicator of high return to investment. Income per hectare earned from seed and hay production was high in Bush rye. There was also an increase in tropical livestock unit (TLU) and milk production. The stocking rate ranges increases from 3-7 ha/TLU/year to 0.412-0.695 ha/TLU/year while milk production improves with about 34.8% and 66.4% per day for cattle and goat respectively. The result shows that there is a significant opportunity for the farmers to profit from reseeding pasture. Such an ex post cost benefit analysis contributes to learning by government managers, politicians and academics about whether reseeding natural pasture is worthwhile. However further research is needed to ascertain the performance of livestock as a result of feeding on these grass species and estimate the associated economic value.
P.N. Katiku J.K. Manyeki, J.M. Nginyi, J.K. Kimutai., R.K. Kimitei, B.P. Ogillo, C.M. 2017. Land Use and Management Strategies under a Changing Climate: The Case of Pastoral Farmers of Narok County, Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Land Use and Management Strategies under a Changing Climate: The Case of Pastoral Farmers of Narok County, Kenya
P.N. Katiku J.K. Manyeki, J.M. Nginyi, J.K. Kimutai., R.K. Kimitei, B.P. Ogillo, C.M. Mahagayu ,W.N. Mnene, G. Keya, P.F. Kibet
A study was conducted in pastoral smallholder production sites of Ololulunga and Nturumeti, Narok County, Kenya to determine land use changes, management and production strategies under the changing climate. Random sample of 32 households, five key informant interviews and four focused group discussions were conducted in November, 2014. The results indicated that livestock production and arable farming are competing favourably for the inelastic land resource owned and utilized by the households. On average, 50% of the households apportioned 50% of their farm, mean size of 7.5 hectares, for crop farming-mainly cereals (wheat and or maize) and the remainder for livestock activities. The usual pastoral herd, where cattle were predominant, is also changing with sheep becoming dominant. Furthermore, the traditional Red Maasai sheep is rapidly being replaced with Dorper which is a higher producer of milk and carcass. To support the large livestock numbers, deliberate pasture production and conservation practices; crop residue bulking and reseeding, are inbuilt in livestock rearing. The changing landuse and management strategy is posing serious land degradation threats; overgrazing, soil erosion and deforestation. Indeed, the infusion of modern land management innovations, technology and conservation strategies are integral in ensuring continued productivty of the land resource. – not conclusive and partly reflects the research findings
Key words: ASAL, land, livestock, smallholder, Narok
E. C. Kirwa, K. Ngugi, G. Chemining’wa and W. N. Mnene. 2017. Participatory Identification and Selection of Collections of Cenchrus ciliaris in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Participatory Identification and Selection of Collections of Cenchrus ciliaris in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya
E. C. Kirwa, K. Ngugi, G. Chemining’wa and W. N. Mnene
A study was carried out through Focused group Discussions (FGDs) to evaluate the farmer knowledge and perceptions regarding ecotypes of C. ciliaris grass species. Selection of farmer preferred ecotypes was done at KALRO Kiboko research station using the ribbon technique of participatory variety selection. Farmers selected among twelve established ecotypes following their own developed farmer criteria of a good and bad grass. Through FGDs, it was observed that farmers were knowledgeable on the existence of the ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris whose occurrence was similar in the three different farmers’ groups interviewed. Three main ecotypes were identified by all groups; the small type with purple colored flowers, the robust bluish type and robust green type. The small type with purple flowers was noted as the most preferred by all groups during the FGDs. The ecotype was said to be a heavy seeder dropping a lot of purple colored seeds on the ground thus allowing for its spread and establishment in different habitats. Also, the ecotype is perceived to be tolerant to droughts and heavy grazing. The criteria for selection of ecotypes varied depending on the type of utilization of the pasture. Two of the ecotypes; KLF1 and TVT1 were highly ranked by farmers due to their small stature and thus good for grazing and were perceived to be drought tolerant.
A. O. Adongo, D. M. Miano, J. N. Kariuki, B. Kidake and G. Keya. 2017. Hygiene Practices and Microbial Status of Raw Bovine Milk in Loitokitok, Kajiado County, Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Hygiene Practices and Microbial Status of Raw Bovine Milk in Loitokitok, Kajiado County, Kenya
A. O. Adongo, D. M. Miano, J. N. Kariuki, B. Kidake and G. Keya
Loitokitok sub-County in Kajiado County, produces an estimated 5 million litres of milk at gross income of about KES 297 million annually. This study aimed to assess the dairy value chain in the area. The key objective was to evaluate status of milk handling and hygiene at household level. Using a multistage sampling method, 200 respondents were interviewed using semi structured questionnaire to collect socio demographic and production data. Additionally, 39 raw milk samples using recommended standard methods. The total Mean ± SEM milk yield per household from all animals was 12.3 ± 1.1 litres from mean number of three (3) lactating cows mainly of cross breed exotic cattle. About 81% of respondents screened animals before milking compared to about 2 = <0.001) with traditional gourds and plastic containers being used to store milk thus predisposing milk to contamination. Mean ±SEM TVC was 2.9 x 108 ± 2294 colony forming units (cfu)/ml (p=0.199) with 74% of sample being above the Kenya Bureau of standards (KeBs) threshold of (<2 x 106 cfu/l). On the other hand Mean CC was 1.65 x 107 ± 67.8 cfu/ml (P=0.02) with 56.4% (p<0.001)) failing to meet the KeBs threshold (500,000 cfu/ml). The Mean of AFM1 was 56.04 ± 8.08 parts per trillion (ppt) (p<0.001). About 53.8% did not meet the recommended standards for AFM1 level in raw milk. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus species still remains a constraint with major sources of contamination emanating from environmental factors. Training on hygienic handling of milk be supported and this should be anchored on proper dairy business model with well-structured milk collection system.
J.K. Kimutai, P.N. Katiku and R.K. Kimitei. 2017. Review of Role of Goat Milk in Household Economy: The Case of ASALs of Kenya. In: Proceedings, ASAL APRP End of Project Conference 2017
Review of Role of Goat Milk in Household Economy: The Case of ASALs of Kenya
J.K. Kimutai, P.N. Katiku and R.K. Kimitei
In the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of Kenya, large flocks of non-dairy breeds of goats are found and are reared for their dual purpose roles of meat and milk. This study sought to review the role of goat milk to the small scale goat farmers in the ASALs of Kenya. The study entailed a desktop study of available literature on goat milk. Information obtained was analysed and meaningful conclusions drawn. Results indicate that Kenya has a great potential of improving its goat milk production in the Eastern Africa region owing to the ownership of 46% of the total goat numbers in the region. However, there has been little research focus on the aspect of goat milk especially after the elapse of donor support programs which were involved in the promotion of dairy development projects in various parts of the country. The market for goat milk is poorly developed in the country thus limiting the commercialization of the goat milk enterprise. Nonetheless, research on the efficiency of goat milk reveal that goat milk production enterprise is an alternative livelihood option in the ASALs owing to its ability to boost farmer incomes and improve nutrition among small-scale farmers. However, there is urgent need to address the various limitations to the commercialization of the sub-sector in order to make it a viable enterprise among the goat keepers living in the ASAL parts of the country.