Manual system is the most common method of rice harvesting in Asia. This method includes cutting the rice crop by simple hand tools like sickle for cutting 15-25 cm above ground level, and simple hand-held knives for cutting just below the panicle (e.g. ani ani in Indonesia). In Bangladesh and India, the harvest is put together in bundles to improve handling and then dried in the field. The manual system of harvesting is very effective in lodged crop conditions, however it is labor intensive. Manual harvesting requires 40 to 80 man-hours per ha. It will take an additional labor to manually collect and haul the harvested crop.

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Mechanical cutting using reapers is another option, though this is not widely used in the Asia. In some reaper-using countries, the reapers are mounted on the front of a tractor. Most reapers lay the crop in a windrow, which allows easy pick up of the harvested crop. A reaper with a cutting-width of 1.5 m can operate at a rate of 2 to 4 ha per day. A leveled field is important when reaping as it is difficult to reap lodged crop that is lying on the ground. 

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Reaper mounted on Chinese power tiller

Pre-planting

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Seeds of high quality should be true to its kind or variety, contain a minimum of impurities and have high establishment rates in the field. The main criteria for describing seed quality can be considered under the following:

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Growth

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There are five parts in understanding good land preparation. These components are an understanding of the:

  1. role of tillage and land leveling in land preparation
  2. reasons why good land preparation is important

Postharvesting

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Guidelines to proper harvesting:

  • Harvest at the right time with the right moisture content;
  • Avoid delays in threshing after harvesting;
  • Use proper machine settings when using a threshing machine;
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