Weeds compete directly with the rice plants and reduce rice yield. Each 1 kg dry matter of weeds is equivalent to 1kg grain loss. Weeds cause most yield loss within the first 20- 50 days after crop establishment. Weeding after panicle initiation may also be important to prevent weeds shedding seeds in future crops.

Effective weed management
•    Plowing and harrowing in fallow should be undertaken at least 10-14 days apart or after rain.
•    Good land leveling reduces weed growth because most weeds have trouble germinating under water
•    Select  varieties which have early vigor
•    Use clean rice seed which is free of weed seeds.
•    Apply permanent water early - weeds cannot germinate under water.
•    First weeding begun within 2-3 weeks after establishment and the second in another 2-3 weeks.  Weed before fertilizer application.
•    Using herbicides. Identify the weed correctly and use the appropriate herbicide as recommended on the label.
•    Spray when the weeds are small
•    Pre-emergent herbicides apply after planting prior to establishment
•    Post emergent  herbicides apply after emergence being careful of crop damage
•    Herbicides are poisonous; if they are not used properly they can cause health and environment problems. Label them clearly and keep them out of children’s reach.
•    Always use protective clothing when spraying.
•    Do not wear raincoats as this increases sweating.


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Seeds of high quality should be true to its kind or variety, contain a minimum of impurities and have high establishment rates in the field. The main criteria for describing seed quality can be considered under the following:

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There are five parts in understanding good land preparation. These components are an understanding of the:

  1. role of tillage and land leveling in land preparation
  2. reasons why good land preparation is important


Guidelines to proper harvesting:

  • Harvest at the right time with the right moisture content;
  • Avoid delays in threshing after harvesting;
  • Use proper machine settings when using a threshing machine;
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